Processing storage
Download
1 / 23

Processing Storage - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 286 Views
  • Updated On :

Processing & Storage. Computer Storage. Primary Storage/Main Memory/RAM - Volatile - changing. Used for data and programs needed for processing by CPU soon. Secondary Storage - Non-volatile - permanent. Used for data and programs to be processed later. Data Representation.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Processing Storage' - Angelica


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Computer storage l.jpg
Computer Storage

  • Primary Storage/Main Memory/RAM - Volatile - changing. Used for data and programs needed for processing by CPU soon.

  • Secondary Storage - Non-volatile - permanent. Used for data and programs to be processed later.


Data representation l.jpg
Data Representation

  • Data - raw, unprocessed info. (letters, numbers, special symbols)

  • Binary Code - what the computer reads. ASCII and EBCDIC - standards for determining data representation

  • Binary - only 2 possible selections (0/1, on/off, magnetized/not magnetized)


Slide4 l.jpg

  • Bit - Binary Digit - single binary 0 or 1

  • Byte - group of adjacent bits that represent 1 letter, 1 number, or 1 special symbol. Often, 8 bits =1 byte.

  • Parity/Check Bit - Extra bit appended to the end of a byte to signify computer error in data.


Storage capacity l.jpg
Storage Capacity

  • 8 bits = 1 byte = 1 character

  • 1000 bytes = 1 kilobyte (K)

  • 1000K = 1 megabyte (MB)

  • 1 billion bytes = 1 gigabyte (GB)

  • 1 trillion bytes = 1 terabyte (TB)


File organization storage devices l.jpg
File Organization/Storage Devices

  • Sequential - data stored/ retrieved in sequential order. Slow. Inexpensive. Historical data/backup. Magnetic tape can ONLY use sequential storage.


Slide7 l.jpg

  • Direct/Relative/Random - data stored/retrieved directly, in any order, as needed. Requires Direct Access Storage Device. (DASD)

  • Index-Sequential - stored sequentially, with index (DASD)


Examples of dasd s l.jpg
Examples of DASD’s

  • Diskette/Floppy Disk- portable, slow, inexpensive, small storage capacity compared to other DASD’s. 5-1/4”, 3-1/2”. 360K - 1.44MB (700 pages of 2000 chars. ) ED - 2.8MB

  • Hard Disk - permanently installed disk(s). 2 - 9+ GB (1 GB: 500,000 pages of 2000 chars.)


Slide9 l.jpg

Large Computer System Disk Storage

  • Removeable Packs

  • Fixed Disk Drives - 1 path

  • RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks) - multiple paths simultaneously (faster)


Slide10 l.jpg

  • Hard Disk Cartridge- inserted into disk drive. Portable. 100 MB - 1.2 GB

  • Flash Memory- lightweight, small fast storage on credit-card sized units. portable 100 MB+

    • NEW S99- Sony Memory Stick - gum-stick-sized storage 4-8MB


Slide11 l.jpg

  • Optical Disks- laser burns spots (bits) onto disks. Disks read by reflecting light from these bits. Slower access than hard disks.

    • CDs - Compact Disks - MOST are read-only (CD-ROM) 650 MB Also CD-R and CD-E/CD-RW

    • DVDs - Digital Video Disks - optical disks with revised format 4.7 - 17 GB


Microcomputer architecture l.jpg
Microcomputer Architecture

  • Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics - EIDE - inexpensive connection for devices - slower than SCSI (16MB per second)

  • Small Computer System Interface - SCSI - devices daisy-chained. Faster than EIDE (40MB per second)


2 types of processing l.jpg
2 Types of Processing

  • Batch - Data collected and processed later, in a group

  • On-line/Real-time - data processed at time of transaction


System unit l.jpg
System Unit

Where processing is done.

  • Motherboard - Circuit board - contains most of the electronic components of the system.

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU) - “brains” On PC, contained on microprocessor chip


Parts of cpu l.jpg
Parts of CPU

  • Control Unit - Directs and coordinates computer activities. Tells other parts of the computer system what to do. Uses machine language (binary code) unique to each type of computer.

  • Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) Performs all arithmetic functions.


Slide16 l.jpg

  • Registers - Temporary storage units in CPU. Used for data/instructions being used now

    • Wordsize - size (in bits) of registers

    • More/larger registers lead to faster processing

  • Bus - electronic communications path for data/instructions.

    • Wider bus - more data - leads to faster processing


Coprocessors l.jpg
Coprocessors

  • Processors used in addition to the main CPU

    • Math

    • Graphics


Machine cycle l.jpg
Machine Cycle

  • Steps the CPU carries out to perform 1 instruction.

  • Synchronized by internal clock

    • clock speed expressed in megahertz (MHz) - 1 million cycles per second.

    • faster speed leads to faster processing


Machine cycle steps l.jpg
Machine Cycle Steps

  • Instruction Cycle

    • Fetch

    • Decode

  • Execution Cycle

    • Execute

    • Store


Memory l.jpg
Memory

  • Random Access Memory (RAM)/ Main Memory/ Primary Storage - stores programs/data needed shortly by CPU. Non-permanent, volatile

  • Read-Only Memory (ROM) - Memory that can be read from - not added to or changed. Comes with computer. Permanent, non-volatile.


Slide21 l.jpg


Ports l.jpg
Ports instructions - CPU looks here first. volatile.

  • Sockets on outside of system unit used to connect peripheral devices.

    • Parallel - multiple bits transferred simultaneously over short distance

    • Serial (COM ) - 1 bit after the other

    • Video Adapter - for monitor

    • SCSI - daisy-chained devices

    • Game - joysticks

    • Infrared - wireless/radiowaves


Expansionslots boards l.jpg
ExpansionSlots/Boards instructions - CPU looks here first. volatile.

  • Slots - sockets on the motherboard

  • Cards/Boards - circuit boards that plug into slots (ex: sound card) Used for memory, coprocessing, controlling devices


ad