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Processing & Storage. Computer Storage. Primary Storage/Main Memory/RAM - Volatile - changing. Used for data and programs needed for processing by CPU soon. Secondary Storage - Non-volatile - permanent. Used for data and programs to be processed later. Data Representation.

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computer storage
Computer Storage
  • Primary Storage/Main Memory/RAM - Volatile - changing. Used for data and programs needed for processing by CPU soon.
  • Secondary Storage - Non-volatile - permanent. Used for data and programs to be processed later.
data representation
Data Representation
  • Data - raw, unprocessed info. (letters, numbers, special symbols)
  • Binary Code - what the computer reads. ASCII and EBCDIC - standards for determining data representation
  • Binary - only 2 possible selections (0/1, on/off, magnetized/not magnetized)
slide4
Bit - Binary Digit - single binary 0 or 1
  • Byte - group of adjacent bits that represent 1 letter, 1 number, or 1 special symbol. Often, 8 bits =1 byte.
  • Parity/Check Bit - Extra bit appended to the end of a byte to signify computer error in data.
storage capacity
Storage Capacity
  • 8 bits = 1 byte = 1 character
  • 1000 bytes = 1 kilobyte (K)
  • 1000K = 1 megabyte (MB)
  • 1 billion bytes = 1 gigabyte (GB)
  • 1 trillion bytes = 1 terabyte (TB)
file organization storage devices
File Organization/Storage Devices
  • Sequential - data stored/ retrieved in sequential order. Slow. Inexpensive. Historical data/backup. Magnetic tape can ONLY use sequential storage.
slide7
Direct/Relative/Random - data stored/retrieved directly, in any order, as needed. Requires Direct Access Storage Device. (DASD)
  • Index-Sequential - stored sequentially, with index (DASD)
examples of dasd s
Examples of DASD’s
  • Diskette/Floppy Disk- portable, slow, inexpensive, small storage capacity compared to other DASD’s. 5-1/4”, 3-1/2”. 360K - 1.44MB (700 pages of 2000 chars. ) ED - 2.8MB
  • Hard Disk - permanently installed disk(s). 2 - 9+ GB (1 GB: 500,000 pages of 2000 chars.)
slide9
Large Computer System Disk Storage
  • Removeable Packs
  • Fixed Disk Drives - 1 path
  • RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks) - multiple paths simultaneously (faster)
slide10
Hard Disk Cartridge- inserted into disk drive. Portable. 100 MB - 1.2 GB
  • Flash Memory- lightweight, small fast storage on credit-card sized units. portable 100 MB+
    • NEW S99- Sony Memory Stick - gum-stick-sized storage 4-8MB
slide11
Optical Disks- laser burns spots (bits) onto disks. Disks read by reflecting light from these bits. Slower access than hard disks.
    • CDs - Compact Disks - MOST are read-only (CD-ROM) 650 MB Also CD-R and CD-E/CD-RW
    • DVDs - Digital Video Disks - optical disks with revised format 4.7 - 17 GB
microcomputer architecture
Microcomputer Architecture
  • Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics - EIDE - inexpensive connection for devices - slower than SCSI (16MB per second)
  • Small Computer System Interface - SCSI - devices daisy-chained. Faster than EIDE (40MB per second)
2 types of processing
2 Types of Processing
  • Batch - Data collected and processed later, in a group
  • On-line/Real-time - data processed at time of transaction
system unit
System Unit

Where processing is done.

  • Motherboard - Circuit board - contains most of the electronic components of the system.
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU) - “brains” On PC, contained on microprocessor chip
parts of cpu
Parts of CPU
  • Control Unit - Directs and coordinates computer activities. Tells other parts of the computer system what to do. Uses machine language (binary code) unique to each type of computer.
  • Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) Performs all arithmetic functions.
slide16
Registers - Temporary storage units in CPU. Used for data/instructions being used now
    • Wordsize - size (in bits) of registers
    • More/larger registers lead to faster processing
  • Bus - electronic communications path for data/instructions.
    • Wider bus - more data - leads to faster processing
coprocessors
Coprocessors
  • Processors used in addition to the main CPU
    • Math
    • Graphics
machine cycle
Machine Cycle
  • Steps the CPU carries out to perform 1 instruction.
  • Synchronized by internal clock
    • clock speed expressed in megahertz (MHz) - 1 million cycles per second.
    • faster speed leads to faster processing
machine cycle steps
Machine Cycle Steps
  • Instruction Cycle
    • Fetch
    • Decode
  • Execution Cycle
    • Execute
    • Store
memory
Memory
  • Random Access Memory (RAM)/ Main Memory/ Primary Storage - stores programs/data needed shortly by CPU. Non-permanent, volatile
  • Read-Only Memory (ROM) - Memory that can be read from - not added to or changed. Comes with computer. Permanent, non-volatile.
slide21
Cache Memory - High speed memory to hold frequently used instructions - CPU looks here first. volatile.
  • Flash Memory - Memory on cards - can be used as extra RAM but is non-volatile.
  • Video Memory - VRAM - Stores display images for monitor.
ports
Ports
  • Sockets on outside of system unit used to connect peripheral devices.
    • Parallel - multiple bits transferred simultaneously over short distance
    • Serial (COM ) - 1 bit after the other
    • Video Adapter - for monitor
    • SCSI - daisy-chained devices
    • Game - joysticks
    • Infrared - wireless/radiowaves
expansionslots boards
ExpansionSlots/Boards
  • Slots - sockets on the motherboard
  • Cards/Boards - circuit boards that plug into slots (ex: sound card) Used for memory, coprocessing, controlling devices
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