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Grounding and Repair. Joe Tepperman CS 599 – Dialogue Modeling Fall 2005. Grounding. Establishing mutual belief Collaborative More than one active participant Acknowledgement Necessary for: Dialogue flow, theorem proving, etc. User modeling Repairing dialogue & ASR errors.

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grounding and repair

Grounding and Repair

Joe Tepperman

CS 599 – Dialogue Modeling

Fall 2005

grounding
Grounding
  • Establishing mutual belief
  • Collaborative
    • More than one active participant
  • Acknowledgement
  • Necessary for:
    • Dialogue flow, theorem proving, etc.
    • User modeling
    • Repairing dialogue & ASR errors
clark and schaefer s contribution model 1989
Clark and Schaefer’s Contribution Model (1989)
  • Influential, but not practical
  • Contributions in two parts:

Presentation Phase

    • Contributor presents content, Partners try to understand it

Acceptance Phase

2. Contributor & Partners move towards a grounding criterion: mutual belief that the contributor was understood sufficiently

assumptions
Assumptions
  • Presentation Phase
    • A assumes that B has understood u if B demonstrates some minimum evidence e or stronger
  • Acceptance Phase
    • B assumes A will believe he has understood u if A registers that B has demonstrated evidence e’

Requires acceptance of acceptance?

types of evidence
Types of Evidence
  • Display: B repeats A’s presentation verbatim
  • Demonstration: B demonstrates what he has understood
  • Acknowledgement: B makes some sign that he has understood
  • Initiate Next Contribution: B makes a relevant contribution
  • Continued Attention: B shows he is satisfied with A’s presentation

strongest

Strongest?

Oblivious?

weakest

main problem with the model

Where does the

presentation end?

Main Problem with the Model
  • How to tell the current state for each utterance: presentation or acceptance phase?

A: Move the boxcar to Corning.

A: And load it with oranges.

B: Okay.

A: Move the boxcar to Corning.

B: Okay.

A: And load it with oranges.

B: Okay.

the grounding acts model traum 1992
The Grounding Acts Model (Traum 1992)
  • Collapses all different types of acceptance
  • Single-utterance level grounding units
  • Allows automatic recognition of a within-utterance grounding act
    • No need to wait for the next phase to start before identifying completion of current one
grounding acts
Grounding Acts
  • Initiate: Begin new content
  • Continue: Add related content
  • Acknowledge: Demonstrate or claim understanding
  • Repair: Correct a perceived misunderstanding
  • Request Repair
  • Request Acknowledgment
  • Cancel: Leave unit ungrounded

Includes all C&S “evidence”

state transition matrix
State Transition Matrix

I: initiator R: responder

S: start F: grounded D: “dead” state

1: ack needed for grounding

2: repairI needed 3: ackI needed

4: repairR needed

previous example
Previous Example

DU1

1: initiateI 1

2: continueI 1

3: acknowledgeR F

DU1DU2

1: initiateI 1

2: acknowledgeR F

3: initiateI F 1

4: acknowledgeR F F

A: Move the boxcar to Corning.

A: And load it with oranges.

B: Okay.

A: Move the boxcar to Corning.

B: Okay.

A: And load it with oranges.

B: Okay.

DU: Discourse Unit

open problems with this model
Open Problems with this Model
  • Binary grounded/ungrounded decision
    • No levels of “groundedness”
  • Leaves the unit size unspecified
  • Confusability of grounding acts
    • e.g. repetition = acknowledgment, repair, or request for repair?
  • Only well-suited for spoken language grounding
a more complete psychological model
A More Complete Psychological Model
  • How is a particular grounding act realized?
  • How important is the grounding?
    • How useful will it be to the system?
  • What criteria are needed?
  • How well will a particular act ground its intended content?
  • And what is the opportunity cost of performing this act?
    • Is it worth it?
levels of analysis quartet paek horvitz 2000
Levels of Analysis: Quartet, Paek & Horvitz 2000
  • Channel Level: attempt to open communication channel with some behavior
  • Signal Level: behavior is intended as a signal
  • Intention Level: understanding of semantic content occurs
  • Conversation Level: a joint activity is proposed and responded to

lowest

highest

*All levels require coordination between speaker and listener

system design

Signal & Channel level

Intention level

Conversation level

System Design
  • Two modules:
    • maintenance
    • intention
  • Conversation Control
    • exchanges info between the modules
    • determines grounding state
    • weighs costs and benefits
    • evaluates module performance & reliability
benefits of this design
Benefits of this Design
  • ASR can model probabilistic dependencies among levels
  • Easier to pinpoint and fix problems in system understanding
  • Models psychological strategies for grounding on lower levels first
  • Flexibility in multiple domains: simply changing the intention module
utterance features
Utterance Features
  • System
    • Implicit/Explicit question
    • Number of verified slots
    • Default assumptions: true?
    • Number, type, and recurrence of errors
  • User
    • Length (in words)
    • Answer to verification question?
    • Ordinary word order?
    • Confirmation/Disconfirmation markers
    • Number of repeated, new, and corrected slots

When do you want to travel to Amsterdam?

So you want to travel to Amsterdam?

Date, time, destination, etc.

e.g. travel today

Human-labeled

I want to go to Amsterdam

Where I want to go is Amsterdam

Yes, no, yeah, nope, etc.

nonverbal grounding nakano et al 2003
Nonverbal Grounding: Nakano et. al. 2003

Speaker/Listener

gP: gaze at partner

gM: gaze at map

gMwN: gaze at map & nod

UU: utterance unit (intonational)

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