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Grounding and Repair. Joe Tepperman CS 599 – Dialogue Modeling Fall 2005. Grounding. Establishing mutual belief Collaborative More than one active participant Acknowledgement Necessary for: Dialogue flow, theorem proving, etc. User modeling Repairing dialogue & ASR errors.

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Grounding and repair l.jpg

Grounding and Repair

Joe Tepperman

CS 599 – Dialogue Modeling

Fall 2005


Grounding l.jpg
Grounding

  • Establishing mutual belief

  • Collaborative

    • More than one active participant

  • Acknowledgement

  • Necessary for:

    • Dialogue flow, theorem proving, etc.

    • User modeling

    • Repairing dialogue & ASR errors


Clark and schaefer s contribution model 1989 l.jpg
Clark and Schaefer’s Contribution Model (1989)

  • Influential, but not practical

  • Contributions in two parts:

    Presentation Phase

    • Contributor presents content, Partners try to understand it

      Acceptance Phase

      2. Contributor & Partners move towards a grounding criterion: mutual belief that the contributor was understood sufficiently


Assumptions l.jpg
Assumptions

  • Presentation Phase

    • A assumes that B has understood u if B demonstrates some minimum evidence e or stronger

  • Acceptance Phase

    • B assumes A will believe he has understood u if A registers that B has demonstrated evidence e’

Requires acceptance of acceptance?


Types of evidence l.jpg
Types of Evidence

  • Display: B repeats A’s presentation verbatim

  • Demonstration: B demonstrates what he has understood

  • Acknowledgement: B makes some sign that he has understood

  • Initiate Next Contribution: B makes a relevant contribution

  • Continued Attention: B shows he is satisfied with A’s presentation

strongest

Strongest?

Oblivious?

weakest


Main problem with the model l.jpg

Where does the

presentation end?

Main Problem with the Model

  • How to tell the current state for each utterance: presentation or acceptance phase?

    A: Move the boxcar to Corning.

    A: And load it with oranges.

    B: Okay.

    A: Move the boxcar to Corning.

    B: Okay.

    A: And load it with oranges.

    B: Okay.


The grounding acts model traum 1992 l.jpg
The Grounding Acts Model (Traum 1992)

  • Collapses all different types of acceptance

  • Single-utterance level grounding units

  • Allows automatic recognition of a within-utterance grounding act

    • No need to wait for the next phase to start before identifying completion of current one


Grounding acts l.jpg
Grounding Acts

  • Initiate: Begin new content

  • Continue: Add related content

  • Acknowledge: Demonstrate or claim understanding

  • Repair: Correct a perceived misunderstanding

  • Request Repair

  • Request Acknowledgment

  • Cancel: Leave unit ungrounded

Includes all C&S “evidence”


State transition matrix l.jpg
State Transition Matrix

I: initiator R: responder

S: start F: grounded D: “dead” state

1: ack needed for grounding

2: repairI needed 3: ackI needed

4: repairR needed


Previous example l.jpg
Previous Example

DU1

1: initiateI 1

2: continueI 1

3: acknowledgeR F

DU1DU2

1: initiateI 1

2: acknowledgeR F

3: initiateI F 1

4: acknowledgeR F F

A: Move the boxcar to Corning.

A: And load it with oranges.

B: Okay.

A: Move the boxcar to Corning.

B: Okay.

A: And load it with oranges.

B: Okay.

DU: Discourse Unit


Open problems with this model l.jpg
Open Problems with this Model

  • Binary grounded/ungrounded decision

    • No levels of “groundedness”

  • Leaves the unit size unspecified

  • Confusability of grounding acts

    • e.g. repetition = acknowledgment, repair, or request for repair?

  • Only well-suited for spoken language grounding


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A More Complete Psychological Model

  • How is a particular grounding act realized?

  • How important is the grounding?

    • How useful will it be to the system?

  • What criteria are needed?

  • How well will a particular act ground its intended content?

  • And what is the opportunity cost of performing this act?

    • Is it worth it?


Levels of analysis quartet paek horvitz 2000 l.jpg
Levels of Analysis: Quartet, Paek & Horvitz 2000

  • Channel Level: attempt to open communication channel with some behavior

  • Signal Level: behavior is intended as a signal

  • Intention Level: understanding of semantic content occurs

  • Conversation Level: a joint activity is proposed and responded to

lowest

highest

*All levels require coordination between speaker and listener


System design l.jpg

Signal & Channel level

Intention level

Conversation level

System Design

  • Two modules:

    • maintenance

    • intention

  • Conversation Control

    • exchanges info between the modules

    • determines grounding state

    • weighs costs and benefits

    • evaluates module performance & reliability


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Benefits of this Design

  • ASR can model probabilistic dependencies among levels

  • Easier to pinpoint and fix problems in system understanding

  • Models psychological strategies for grounding on lower levels first

  • Flexibility in multiple domains: simply changing the intention module







Utterance features l.jpg
Utterance Features

  • System

    • Implicit/Explicit question

    • Number of verified slots

    • Default assumptions: true?

    • Number, type, and recurrence of errors

  • User

    • Length (in words)

    • Answer to verification question?

    • Ordinary word order?

    • Confirmation/Disconfirmation markers

    • Number of repeated, new, and corrected slots

When do you want to travel to Amsterdam?

So you want to travel to Amsterdam?

Date, time, destination, etc.

e.g. travel today

Human-labeled

I want to go to Amsterdam

Where I want to go is Amsterdam

Yes, no, yeah, nope, etc.


Nonverbal grounding nakano et al 2003 l.jpg
Nonverbal Grounding: Nakano et. al. 2003

Speaker/Listener

gP: gaze at partner

gM: gaze at map

gMwN: gaze at map & nod

UU: utterance unit (intonational)



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