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AND FRIENDS. TED. Karen Kalck & Tracy Garza. Objectives. Taxonomy Anatomy Restraint and handling Training Physical exam Signs of illness Diagnostic modalities. This is Ted…. These are Ted’s friends…. Sea Lion. Manatee. Gray whale. Seal. Sea otter. Fur seal.

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AND FRIENDS

TED

Karen Kalck & Tracy Garza


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Objectives

  • Taxonomy

  • Anatomy

  • Restraint and handling

  • Training

  • Physical exam

  • Signs of illness

  • Diagnostic modalities



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These are Ted’s friends…

Sea Lion

Manatee

Gray whale

Seal

Sea otter

Fur seal


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TAXONOMY(how Ted fits in with his friends)

  • Carnivora

    • Polar Bears

    • Sea Otters

    • Pinnipeds

      • Sea Lions and Fur Seals – Otarids

      • Seals - Phocids

      • Walruses - Odobenids

  • Sirenia

    • Manatees

    • Dugongs

  • Cetaceans

    • Untoothed Mysticetes - i.e. Gray whales

    • Toothed Odontocetes – i.e. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises


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Sea Lions

and

Fur Seals

The Pinnipeds

Callorhinus ursinus

(northern fur seal)

True Seals

Phoca vitulina

(harbor seal)

Walrus

Odobenus rosmarus

(walrus)


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No Pinnae!!

What has happened to my ears??


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Sea Lions

and

Fur Seals

The Pinnipeds

Callorhinus ursinus

(northern fur seal)

True Seals

Phoca vitulina

(harbor seal)

Walrus

Odobenus rosmarus

(walrus)


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TAXONOMY(how Ted fits in with his friends)

  • Carnivora

    • Polar Bears

    • Sea Otters

    • Pinnipeds

      • Sea Lions and Fur Seals – Otarids

      • Seals - Phocids

      • Walruses - Odobenids

  • Sirenia

    • Manatees

    • Dugongs

  • Cetaceans

    • Untoothed Mysticetes - i.e. Gray whales

    • Toothed Odontocetes – i.e. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises


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Manatees

Sirenians

Trichechus manatus

(Florida manatee)

Dugong

Dugong dugon (Dugong)


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TAXONOMY(how Ted fits in with his friends)

  • Carnivora

    • Polar Bears

    • Sea Otters

    • Pinnipeds

      • Sea Lions and Fur Seals – Otarids

      • Seals - Phocids

      • Walruses - Odobenids

  • Sirenia

    • Manatees

    • Dugongs

  • Cetaceans

    • Untoothed Mysticetes - i.e. Gray whales

    • Toothed Odontocetes – i.e. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises






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RESTRAINT AND HANDLING - WILD CAPTURE

  • Equipment

    • Nets and ropes

    • Stretchers

    • Pulleys

    • Manpower


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TRAINING TED

  • Reduces risk of injury and stress

  • Important behaviors

    • Tail fluke

    • Genital slit

    • Urination

  • TRAINING IS KEY!



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RESTRAINT AND HANDLING OF TED

  • Restraint out of water

    • More likely to injure himself than you

    • Stay close to his body

    • Be careful not to restrict his breathing

    • Place hand on rostrum to keep mouth closed

    • Keep tail under control at all times!!


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I learned the

hard way!!


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TED’S PHYSICAL EXAM

  • Healthy Ted

  • Venipuncture

  • Auscultation and percussion

  • Injections


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Healthy Ted

  • Attitude

    • Interested in and follows people

    • Rests by maintaining neutral buoyancy

  • Eyes

    • Tears very thick

    • Pupil shape

  • Mouth

    • 80-104 total teeth

    • Clear mucus glands

  • Skin

    • No sebaceous glands

    • Easily lacerated or contused


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Healthy Ted

  • Blowhole

    • Fresh to slightly “fishy” breath odor

    • Occasional white, foamy fluid

  • Body Condition

    • No “neck”

    • Plump

  • Stool

    • Greenish-tan; watery

    • Occasionally may float

  • Urine

    • Light to dark amber, clear


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Ted’s Blood(Venipuncture)

  • Needle inserted at a perpendicular angle to

    the keel

  • The blood of dolphins has a prolonged clotting time (lacks factor 12)


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Ted’s Heart and Lungs (Auscultation and percussion)

  • Conventional stethoscope in plastic sleeve

  • Placed over lower third of thorax just caudal and slightly ventral to the pectoral fin


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Ted’s Heart and Lungs (Auscultation and percussion)

  • Respiratory

    • Rate 1-4 times per minute

    • Measured over a 5 minute period

  • Heart

    • Rate is generally 40-130 bpm

    • Sinus arrhythmia is common


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Injecting Ted

  • IV injections

  • Subcutaneous injections

    • Possible and sometimes done for fluid therapy

  • IM injections

    • Between the dorsal and lateral spinous processes of the vertebrae

That better only be a 22 gauge!


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IF TED WAS SICK…

  • Poor appetite

  • Evident weight loss

  • Unusual behavior

  • Vomiting or diarrhea

  • Discharges from the

    blowhole or nostrils

  • Foul breath

  • Discolored or cloudy urine

  • Skin damage


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COMMON MEDICAL CONDITIONS

  • Skin wounds

  • Bacterial infections

  • Fungal infections

  • Dental disease

  • Gastric Ulcers

  • Gastric foreign objects


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DIAGNOSTIC MODALITIES

  • Radiographs

  • Ultrasound

  • Endoscopy

  • CT Scan

  • MRI


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REFERENCES

  • Borecky, Richard. MSU CVM Class of 2003

  • Gulland, Ph.D.,VetM.B.,MRCVS, Frances, (2000): Concepts In Marine Mammal Medicine

  • Rommel, Ph.D., Sentiel, (2000): Concepts In Marine Mammal Medicine

  • Tarpley, D.V.M., Ph.D. Raymond (2000): Concepts In Marine Mammal Medicine

  • Van Bonn D.V.M., William (2000): Concepts In Marine Mammal Medicine

  • Photos courtesy of www.davidfleetham.com and www.corbis.com



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