SMOKE-FREE PLACE An Environmental Marketing experience at the University of Barcelona Montserrat Ecija, Marina Romeo & Enric Pol
Smoke-Free Place Ecija, Romeo & Pol CONTEXTOF THE PROBLEM • To analyze the design and evaluation of the campaign of environmental marketing “Smoke-Free place”. • It arises from the breach of the current legal norm. • Traditional signalectic that forbids smoking does not imply the fulfilment of the norm, representing sometimes an instigator for the smokers to fail in its fulfilment if a strong social control does not exist • The unconscious imitative conduct causes that the presence of a few that break the norm triggers its total breach as a cascade effect.
Smoke-Free Place Ecija, Romeo & Pol SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTION OF THE CAMPAIGN • First phase: • Informative axis, posters with a fixed location, with the objective of informing users of the preestablished areas permitted for smoking (yellow points). • Persuasive axis, posters and different banderols, motivating users to smoke in that space. • Social influence axis, short musical and theatrical performances were played with the collaboration of the center students. • Informative flier. • Second phase: • Persuasive axis,other posters and banderols were distributed.
Espai sense fum Punt groc més proper Punt groc més proper
JA HE TROBAT…… EL PUNT GROC
Ves a fumar al ... Espai sense fum
Smoke-Free Place Ecija, Romeo & Pol THEORETICAL BACKGROUND • Environmental marketing: • Message: smoke-free place, smoke in the preestablished zones (yellow points). • Target group: students (but also teaching and administrative staff when they are in the place). • Habit that should be modified: smoking in the no-smoking areas. • Distinguish this campaign from the environmental education. • Environmental management assumes the theory of attitudes and change of attitudesas a background (Heberlein, 1989). • The information does not guarantee any change of attitude nor of behaviour. • Actively participation facilitates a durable retention of the message.
Smoke-Free Place Ecija, Romeo & Pol Information is necessary, but not sufficient It remits to the feelings associated with: Real or imaginary personal experiences, places and situations Human behaviour has a rationality and internal coherence dimension, but behaviour is not always rational and coherent. Positives: camplaisants, desired or daydreamt Negatives: passed painful experiences. Fear to the future/perceived risk Rationality Emotionality • Required resources to facilitate the behaviour • To explain how to perform the desired behaviour • To minimize the additional effort related to actual behaviours Need of belonging, affiliation, feeling a part. The human being tends to favour the endogroup and to follow its rule. Functionality Social influence (in the presence of the group, but not necessarily in its absence) Required actions: to detect the associative formal and informal structure; to know the Social Representations, implicit theories, shared values and opinions. To know and to act with and over the opinion leaders; Social Ecofeedback. Do not confuse what concerns to a standard level and what concerns to the citizen’s responsibility level. Basic Action: to reduce inhibitors and to facilitate the behaviour THE MODEL OF THE FOUR SPHERES (Pol, 2000)
Smoke-Free Place Ecija, Romeo & Pol DEVELOPED ACTIONS LINKED EACH SPHERE • Rationality sphere, the “smoke-free places” and “smoking places” has been clearly signposted. • Emotionality sphere, respect attitudes and values have been emphasized among the faculty users, as well as the participation of the all members in the campaign. • Functionality sphere,the yellow points have been distributed in each one of the corridors with a relatively short distance from the classrooms. Posters specifying the location of the nearest yellow point, and a fliers with a map of each set of classrooms also have been distributed. • Social influencesphere, accomplishment of performances (collaboration of students). Faculty’s directors request the participation of the faculty’s council members to act as control agents. This was a proposal action but was not performed
Smoke-Free Place Ecija, Romeo & Pol • Without a long term monitoring and maintaining system, the results of environmental programs would be poor, and of short term duration. • Even though many environmental theories have emphasized the paper of the surroundings as a determinant or a facilitator of the behaviour (for instance, the Ecological Theory of Baker), there are little proposals related to the change of behaviour based on the change of the scenario (Gump, 1977; Finnie, 1973).
Smoke-Free Place Ecija, Romeo & Pol OBJECTIVE AND METHODOLOGY • To know in which level the campaign success has been obtained and maintained. • 1st stage: it includes the period of one week before the beginning of the campaign until the first actions.Daily observational registry. • 2nd stage: it includes the period of one week, being developed the actions of the first phase: distribution of posters, banderols, fliers and accomplishment of performances. • 3rd stage: it consisted of maintaining the information level of the campaign. • 4th stage: olderposters and banderols were substituted by new ones for the second study term. • Daily observational registry:- Observation hours: morning or afternoon • - Specific Scenarios
Smoke-Free Place Ecija, Romeo & Pol RESULTS
Smoke-Free Place Ecija, Romeo & Pol
Smoke-Free Place Ecija, Romeo & Pol SUCCESSES AND FAILURES OF THE CAMPAIGN • Relative success of the campaign: Relating to the smoking behaviour, a habit change has not been achieved. Faculty members have not assumed a norm related to this behaviour. Even though the smoking decrease in the smoke free-places, this conduct still exists. • According to the results, light differences between schedules and scenarios (but not sufficiently significant) are shown.
Smoke-Free Place Ecija, Romeo & Pol • Inadequate communicative strategy ? • From 4 spheres as theoretical reference: • Rational information: OK • Emotional dimension: OK • Functional dimension: OK, but We provide the place to smoke very near of free smoke places, but… Institution does not provide resources enough to help to transform smoking point from sociofugal into a sociopetal place.
Smoke-Free Place Ecija, Romeo & Pol • Social influence sphere: • Does not work Why? • Nobody make pressure over smokers in illegal place. • Professors has to had important role that does not assume. Institution does not not ask them to assume the role formally. • Cascade effect: if one of the users smokes outside the preestablished space and it is not recriminated or sanctioned for that reason, the other people, conscious or unconsciously, can imitate this conduct, being possible to get to generalize the fact of smoking in the spaces without smoke. • GENERAL CONCLUSION: A marketing environmental campaign related with the scenario and the information like a form to reinforce the change of behaviour or habit, can not forget the social influence sphere. In our case, the results show that this is the most relevant aspect for the objective successes.