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Exploring Oil & Gas

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  1. Exploring Oil & Gas

  2. Historical Energy Use by Type of Fuel (%)

  3. Where are the fossils in Fossil Fuels? Fossil fuels were forming before dinosaurs lived…

  4. Formation

  5. Hydrocarbons The NEED Project

  6. Methane

  7. The NEED Project

  8. History of Oil

  9. Edwin Drake and Henry Ford

  10. History of Natural Gas

  11. First U.S. Natural Gas Well In 1821, William Hart dug the first natural gas well in Fredonia, NY. The NEED Project

  12. Where are Oil and Gas found in the U.S.? The NEED Project

  13. Oil and gas are found on land and under water…

  14. Sedimentary Rock and Petroleum Traps

  15. Oil and Gas Process

  16. Exploration by Geologists

  17. Seismic Technology Land Water

  18. Seabed Seismic

  19. Visualization The NEED Project

  20. Core Samples

  21. Exploration and Production by Drilling The NEED Project

  22. Drilling Process

  23. Parts of a Well

  24. Horizontal Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing Increased technology allows us to retrieve “tight” formations. The drilling process is similar, except for a specialized bit that allows for horizontal drilling. If oil and gas are trapped, fracturing may be used to allow liquids to flow.

  25. Production Christmas Tree Horse Head Pump

  26. Enhanced Oil Recovery

  27. Oil Transport

  28. Natural Gas Transport The NEED Project

  29. Refining of Petroleum

  30. Fractionating Tower

  31. What does a barrel of crude oil provide? Note: A 42-U.S. gallon barrel of crude oil yields about 45 gallons of petroleum products. Data: Energy Information Administration

  32. Petroleum Products Petroleum Products by Type, 2011 Gasoline 42.02% Diesel / Heating Oil 26.99% Other 14.36% (asphalt, feedstock, paraffin) Jet Fuel 8.80% Refinery Fuel 4.11% Liquefied Petroleum Gas 3.73% Data: Energy Information Administration

  33. Processing of Natural Gas A natural gas compressor

  34. Uses of Petroleum and Natural Gas Data: Energy Information Administration

  35. Summary of Oil and Natural Gas Advantages Disadvantages Nonrenewable Greenhouse Gases(CO2) Air pollution (byproducts released during combustion) Price instability and costs rising Reliance upon imports Environmental impacts • Widely available • Simple combustion process can directly heat or generate electricity • Inexpensive • Easily distributed—good infrastructure in place • High energy content

  36. For More Information The NEED Project www.need.org info@need.org 1-800-875-5029 Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy www.eia.gov The NEED Project