Sectionalism and secession
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Sectionalism and Secession. Southern Expansion. Tennessee and Kentucky “Old Southwest” Mississippi Territory Louisiana Purchase, 1803 Florida Texas.[]&image=16083.jpg. Indian Removal.

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Southern expansion
Southern Expansion

  • Tennessee and Kentucky

  • “Old Southwest”

    • Mississippi Territory

    • Louisiana Purchase, 1803

    • Florida

    • Texas[]&image=16083.jpg

Indian removal
Indian Removal[]&image=16348.jpg

King cotton
King Cotton

  • Factors that contributed to rise of Cotton Kingdom:

    • Demand from British textile mills

    • Invention of cotton gin, 1793

    • Availability of land in the “Old Southwest”

Non cotton agriculture
Non-Cotton Agriculture

  • Sugar (Texas and Louisiana)

  • Rice (S.C.)

  • Tobacco (Md., N.C., Tenn., Ky.)

  • Hemp (Ky., Tenn., and Mo.)

  • Wheat (Md., Va., Ky., and Tenn.)

  • Corn (everywhere)

  • Livestock (Southeast)


  • Southerners dominated early national politics, and generally advanced national interests

  • Early sectional divisions led by New Englanders

    • opposition to the Louisiana Purchase

    • Opposition to War of 1812

    • Hartford Convention, 1814

      • Federalists proposed seven amendments designed to protect New England from the influence of the South and West

Missouri compromise 1820
Missouri Compromise, 1820

  • Mo. ready for statehood, 1819

  • Tallmadge Amendment

    • Stated no more slaves could be brought into Mo., and provided for gradual emancipation

  • 1819, 11 Free, 11 Slave states

    • Mo. would upset balance

  • Missouri Compromise:

    • Mo. admitted as a slave state

    • Maine admitted as a free state

    • 36’30 line established

The age of jackson
The Age of Jackson

  • Won presidency in 1828

  • split Republican Party

    • founded Democrats

  • A nationalist, Jackson pushed some sectional interests:

    • Indian removal from the Southeast

    • veto of the charter of the Bank of the U.S.

    • opposed federal money for internal improvements

    • opposed any restrictions on the peculiar institution


  • J. C. Calhoun proposed doctrine of nullification in opposition to tariffs

    • States, were arbiters of what was constitutional

  • 1832, new tariff passed

    • S.C. called for a state convention to determine the constitutionality of the tariff bill

    • Calhoun resigned as vice-president as part of the protest

    • convention ruled the tariffs null and void in S.C.

  • Congress passes Force Bill

    • S.C. nullifies Force Bill

  • Conflict averted with passage of the compromise tariff


  • William Lloyd Garrison

    • 1831, the Liberator.

    • Reject "gradualism"

    • freedom, and equality

    • 1833, founded American Antislavery Society

  • Frederick Douglass

    • Born a slave in Md., Douglass escaped in 1838

    • Published the North Star

    • 1845, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass

  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852

    • Harriet Beecher Stowe

    • Sold 300,000+ copies first year

    • Brought abolitionism to an enormous new audience

Anti abolition

  • Bible, history and biology used to justify slavery

    • Josiah Nott, Types of Manhood (1855)

  • John C. Calhoun was perhaps the greatest pro-slavery advocate, arguing:

    • the end of slavery would mean a race war

    • no reason to destroy a system that benefited the U.S.

    • slavery had civilized Africans from a “low, degraded and savage condition”

    • tariffs, not slavery, retarded economic development

    • Southern slavery was superior to Northern and European“wage slavery”

The mexican cession
The Mexican Cession

  • Acquisition of Texas, N.M., and California in 1848 reopened debate on slavery in the territories

    • Abolitionists/free soilers objected to any extension of slavery

    • White Southerners argued the Constitution protected the rights of Americans to bring their property wherever they wanted

  • Wilmont Proviso, 1846

    • Rep. David Wilmont (D-Penn.) introduced a bill prohibiting slavery in territories acquired from Mexico

      • Wilmost Proviso passed in House, but dies in Senate

  • California gold rush added urgency to territorial debate

    • Taylor advocated popular sovereignty for Calif. and N.M.

      • CA quickly adopted a constitution that prohibited slavery in 1849

        • but Congress balked at admitting CA as a free state

Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850

  • California admitted as free state

  • In the rest of the new lands acquired from Mexico, territorial governments to be formed without restrictions on slavery (popular sovereignty)

  • Abolishment of the slave trade, but not slavery, in Washington, D.C.

  • New Fugitive Slave Law

    • Federal Marshals now involved in slave-catching

Kansas nebraska act 1854
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

  • opened two territories (Kansas, Nebraska) to slavery by declaring that they would become free or slave states as their constitutions would allow when they applied for statehood

    • effectively voided the 36’ 30” line of 1820

    • imposed the Wilmont Proviso in reverse

      • all new territories now open to slavery

Bleeding kansas
Bleeding Kansas

  • Between 1854-58 elections held in Kansas were marred by fraud and intimidation

    • pro-slavery forces gained control of the Kansas legislature, and passed a pro-slave constitution (Lecompton Constitution)

    • Free-soilers set up their own government in Topeka

  • War erupts between anti-slavery and pro-slavery forces

    • 1856, sack of the free-soil settlement of Lawrence

    • Pottawattomie Creek Massacre, 1856

Dred scott v sanford 1857
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)

  • Dred Scott sued for his freedom, claiming that he was no longer a slave because he had lived on free soil.

  • In a 7 to 2 decision, the court declared that Scott was still a slave and not a citizen and so had no constitutional right to sue

    • Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled that No black person could be a citizen of the U.S., and that “no black person had any rights that a white person needed to honor.”

    • The decision further held that Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in the territories and that the Missouri Compromise therefore was unconstitutional

John brown s raid october 1859
John Brown’s Raid, October 1859

  • John Brown planned to spark a slave rebellion which would force the South to emancipate.

    • attacked U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Va., with 18 followers

  • Brown and 6 of his followers were promptly captured, tried, found guilty, and executed

  • John Brown’s raid enflamed passions both north and south

  • After John Brown’s Raid, Southern militias—the beginnings of the Confederate Army—began to be raised, trained, and equipped

The development of the g o p
The Development of the G.O.P.

  • People in both major parties who opposed the Kansas-Nebraska bill began to call themselves Anti-Nebraska Democrats and Anti-Nebraska Whigs.

    • In 1854, they formed the Republican Party

  • The GOP:

    • opposed the expansion of slavery into the territories

    • advocated high tariffs, homesteads, and internal improvements

  • G.O.P. a purely sectional party—no support in the South

Bleeding sumner
“Bleeding Sumner”

  • 1856, abolitionist Senator Charles Sumner delivered speech entitled "The Crime Against Kansas."

    • attacked slavery and the South

  • Speech enraged S.C. Rep. Preston Brooks

    • Several days later Brooks attacked Sumner at his desk in the Senate with a cane

  • Sumner was injured severely, and became a symbol in the North as to the barbarism of the South

  •  Preston Brooks was hailed as a Southern hero

Freeport doctrine
Freeport Doctrine

  • 1858, Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    • Lincoln asked Douglas if there was any lawful way in which the people of a territory could exclude slavery?

    • Douglas responded that slavery could not survive in a territory unless it was supported by protective local legislation, and if a territorial legislature refused to enact such legislation, slavery would not exist regardless of what Supreme Court said.

Election of 1860 democratic conventions
Election of 1860—Democratic Conventions

  • Democratic Convention held at Charleston, S.C.

    • Many Southern delegates walked out and established their own convention with a pro-slavery platform

    • After failing to agree on a nominee, the regular convention adjourned

  • Baltimore Convention

    • Northerners and Southerners still could not agree and the party split into sectional halves

      • Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas

    • Southern Democrats again walked out and established their own faction, the Constitutional Democrats

      • nominated VP John C. Breckenridge (TN) on a pro-slavery platform

Election of 1860 republican convention
Election of 1860—Republican Convention

  • Republican Convention held in Chicago

    • Only 5 of the 15 slave states represented

  • Republicans nominated Lincoln on 3rd ballot

  • GOP platform a direct threat to Southern interests

    • embodied the political and economic program of the North:

      • upward revision of the tariff

      • free farms in the West (Homestead Act)

      • railroad subsidies by federal government

      • Preservation of Union

      • No extension of slavery into the territories

Election of 1860
Election of 1860

  • Two separate elections in 1860:

    • Lincoln v. Douglas in the North

    • Breckenridge v. Bell (Constitutional Union) in South

  • GOP not even on the ticket in 10 Southern States.

  • Lincoln won the election due to Democratic split

    • Lincoln won only 39.8% of popular vote, easily won the Electoral College by sweeping the free states (except NJ).

    • Brekenridge won 44.7% of the South’s popular vote and 10 of the 15 slave states, but it was not nearly enough.


  • December 20, 1860, the S.C. state convention voted unanimously to seceded from the Union

    • election of Lincoln deemed an “overt act” of aggression

  • By February 1861, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas had all seceded

  • February 8, 1861, delegates from the seceding states met in Montgomery, Ala., and established the Confederate States of America.

    • A provisional constitution was adopted

    • Jefferson Davis of Miss. was appointed President, with Alexander Stephens of Ga. named VP.

Causes for secession
Causes for Secession

  • Southerners resented infringement of right to take their property, slaves, into western territories

  • Northern interference with the fugitive slave act

  • South believed that it had lost political weight in balance of the Union

    • Believed that the extension of slavery essential to preserving the rights of Southerners

  • Feared Lincoln presidency would mean subjugation of South, emancipation of slaves

  • King Cotton Diplomacy