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Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (East Africa).

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Optimizing livelihood and environmental benefits from crop residues in smallholder crop-livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia(East Africa)

Alan Duncan, Kindu Mekonnen, Gedion James, Dagnachew Lule, MesfinBahta, FantuNisrane, Olaf Erenstein and Diego ValbuenaSLP CR Synthesis Meeting; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2-4 Oct 2012

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Cereal dominated

No legumes!

Mainly cereals

Some legumes

More diverse

Diversity

More legumes

Vegetables

crop inputs

Inputs

Crop inputs
  • Very low level of fertilizer inputs – “recommended rate of urea and DAP for maize on acidic Nitisols in Nekemte area is 141 and 150 kg ha-1”
  • Inputs follow expected gradient
tillage
Tillage
  • Almost no mechanization
  • Not much draught power in Kakamega – small farm size
chemicals
Chemicals
  • Almost no chemical inputs
milk yield
Milk Yield
  • Yield follows intensification gradient
cr allocation
CR allocation
  • Soil return follows intensification gradient
  • Feed declines with intensification
  • Majority fed, minor proportion mulched
determinants of cr use
Determinants of CR use

Access to credit means less mulch

Alternative feed sources leads to more “other uses”

More land means more flexibility in CR use

Association membership leads to more mulching

More livestock per unit area means more feed less mulch

Use of improved seed leads to more feeding

Greater food security means more feed less mulch

More milk marketing means more feed less mulch

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TIPs

Key trade offs

CR

CR

Reduce

Reduce

Biological

Non-biological

Soil

Feed

Soil

intervention strategies to spare residues for soil
Intervention strategies- to spare residues for soil
  • Reduce non-biological uses
    • Alternative hh fuel, better stoves, power access
    • Affordable construction material
  • Reduce use of CR for feed
    • Mechanization
    • Intensify production to reduce need for many livestock
  • Produce more biomass
    • Agronomy interventions to escape “1-ton ag”
energy requirements for draught
Energy requirements for draught
  • Assumptions
    • 2 working oxen, 2 mature cows to provide replacements
    • Milk yield 1.5 l per day
    • 60 days draught activity per year

Two thirds of “productive energy” used for ploughing

Three quarters of feed used for M