TOPIC 3 . Islamic Management C oncept. ISLAMIC MANAGEMENT CONCEPT. The concept of al- Istikhlaf Islamic management model: Management of Rasul PBUH. Management during the Islamic Caliphates . Islam and modern management. The concept of al- Istikhlaf.
To us Muslims, when the concept that “Allah is the owner” settles in a man’s heart, be he a producer or a consumer, he feels honored and grateful that some of Allah wealth has been put in his trust.
“Believe in God and His messenger and expend of that unto which He has made you trustees. And those of you who believes and expand shall have a mighty wage” 57:7.
( منكم وأنفقوا لھم أجر كبیر . ( سورة الحدید آیة ٧
On the contrary, those material needs has been so explicitly recognized by Shari'ah. Suffice it to say that a Muslim dying for defending his material wealth is recognized in Shari'ahas martyr.
Out of the concept of Istikhlaf emanates the individual’s responsibility towards the rest of the society, be it in the form of Zakat which is compulsory, or Sadaqat which is voluntary, but may become obligatory when rest of society is in need.
These obligations stem from the fact that the wealth at hand is actually owned by Allah and holder only deputized to use it.
Another outcome of the Istikhlaf concept is apparent in the Islamic laws of inheritance.
In other legal system where ownership over assets lack this concept of Istikhlaf, owner can dispose of his wealth during his life time and even after his death.
According to a famous lexicographer, Ibn-e-ManzoorIfriqi, “al-khalfudidd al-qudaam,” khalf(behind/ at the back) is opposite to qudaam (fore part/front part); khalifahmeans, the one who becomes successor to his prior. (IbnManzoor, Lisaan al-‘Arab, (Qum: NashruAdab al-Hawzah), 1405 AH, 9: 82-82)
The four verses prior to verse 56 in Surah Al-Nur deal with obedience. Obedience to ‘Allah and His messenger’. Obedience to ‘what is right’. And if you obey the Messenger you will be successful and ‘rightly guided’. These verses explain that you have to display obedience to receive guidance. This guidance is through the Messenger and then after him through his Successor or Vicegerent in the earth. This is a promise of spiritual and temporal leadership, which will keep the believers united and lead to peace. When a Messenger dies people naturally get fearful as to what will happen next. A leaderless people are without direction and this situation will eventually lead to chaos. Allah promises to exchange their fear with security and peace. But the condition is the believers need to worship Allah alone and do good works.
The next verse (24:57) describes three essential conditions for the fulfillment of this promise namely
1. Observe prayer.
2. Give Zakat (alms to the poor)
3. Be obedient to the Messenger.
By the token of time. Verily, man is in loss. Except those who believe and do righteous good deeds and recommend one another to the truth, patience and constancy.
The lesson and message from this verse highlighted the importance of time management and that we should internalize it as part of daily lives.
Islam requires us to manage our time wisely. As an example, lets look at our fasting ritual. Although fasting begins only when the time of fajr sets in, we are encouraged to stop our food consumption at least 10 minutes earlier. This has been the practice of the sahabats and the solafussoleh. It testify that those who lived 1400 years ago had even started practising time management during their life time.
Grab five things before another five appear, young age before old age, health before sickness, wealth before poverty, leisure before busy, life before death "
We usually do not value the gifts of good health and the abundance of time until those gifts were taken away from us. Often whenever someone fall ill, only then would he value the importance of good health and the abundance of time. Those were the words of Rasullullah saw in a hadith that says:
-Duties and liabilities of a finder
- Hybrid contracts (takaful, ijarah thumma al-bay’)
- -verses regarding original form of riba’
-salam, isitisna’ etc
-viewing subject matter of the sale
Set both short-term and long-term goals for your work day, work week, and work year. Take the time to make a written list of your goals, which will allow you to refer back to the list when you need some guidance. Keep in mind that it is okay to adjust the goals as your business needs or your role changes. Use them as a tool to guide you.
All work an no play is a difficult concept to sustain for very long. Build rewards into your schedule. If there is a task you really dislike, follow it with a task that you greatly enjoy. Build "mini-rewards" into your schedule to increase your productivity.
Keep a running "To Do" list. The To Do list should contain both daily tasks as well as longer-term tasks. Having a To Do list will help keep your attention on the projects that require attention, and prevent some items from slipping through the cracks and being forgotten.
Keep your expectations realistic. No one can do everything, and with that it mind, try to set realistic expectations of what you can hope to accomplish.
Prioritize the list of things to do. Some items might require immediate attention, while others may be necessary but not as urgent. And after prioritizing, try not to become a "firefighter" and only react to the urgent items. Be sure to still give proper attention to non-urgent items as well, as they are important too.
If there are blocks of time that you spend waiting or commuting, figure out ways to use that time being productive! Reading, writing, proof-reading, reviewing your schedule, planning for your next activity, etc, are all things that can usually be done remotely to fill in some of the unavoidable "dead" time in your schedule. Try to find interesting and unusual productive things to do during those periods of downtime.
Set reasonable time limits for tasks. When working on those tasks, monitor the time that each item is taking.
Organize your work space, and remove any excessive clutter. Spending time looking for something is a waste of time... and time is a precious commodity. Both your computer files and your physical working area should be organized so that you can easily locate anything you need in a moments notice.
If you find yourself consumed by social media, facebook, instant messaging, or other social mediums, set aside a specific and timed period of the day for participating in the online social community. Other than those specific periods of time, set your status to "unavailable" so that you are not interrupted throughout the work day. Minimize interruptions and distractions as much as possible.
Ahmad Sanusi Husain
CEO & Principal Consultant - Alfalah Consulting