Culture in practice. Gert Jan Hofstede Nov 2007. Niko Tinbergen’s questions. Animal behaviour…? cause function learning evolution How about culture?. 1907-1988. Cause of culture. People have Group-wise social structure Moral feelings (good / bad behaviour, reputation)
Gert Jan Hofstede
Group-wise social structure
Moral feelings (good / bad behaviour, reputation)
Education (transferring values and practices for group)
Groups differ in environment
Substenance (hunt/gather, farm, herd)
→ divergence of cultures is expected
Societies have scarce resources to divide
→ rules of the game are called for,
to avoid fighting, jealousy, cultural downfall…
→ most important: Golden Rule, Categorical Imperative
→culture enables group to be a ‘virtuous’ reproductive unit
(…and identity creates out-groups)
Children learn from
Team members learn from
±10.000.000 years: apes, versatile social mammals
± 1.000.000 years: early humans, fire → language → conquering niches, travelling
± 10.000 years: agriculture → cities → specialization,
warfare, empires, multilevel groups
± 1.000 years same
± 100 years industrialization, public / private
± 10 years information age, ‘global village’
Is the EU a moral circle?
Where is our code?
Give it now!
1. No. I have a better plan.
3. Mikkelsen to Yap and Tan
Here is my plan.
What do you think of it?
2. Lee cc: to many bosses
Do as we all tell you!Transpacific trouble
New US executive: “reduce scrap!”
Scrap halved by end 1st quarter!
Malay woman standing alone
2nd quarter: inventory losses stagger
Toilets clog up