Treatment of infectious diseases - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Treatment of infectious diseases

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  1. Treatment of infectious diseases

  2. Drugs used in the treatment of bacterial diseases can be grouped into categories based on their modes of action: • Penicillins/cephalosporins interfere with certain layers of cell wall • Chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, erythromycins-may be toxic when used in high doses or prolonged periods of time *** • Rifampin-used for treatment of TB ***

  3. Drugs that effectively inhibit viral infections are highly toxic to host cells because viruses use the host’s metabolic enzymes in reproduction 1. Antiviral drugs target virus-specific enzymes 2. Acyclovir-used in treatment of genital herpes*** 3. Amantadine-used to prevent or moderate influenza *** 4. AZT-inhibit replication of HIV genome

  4. Development of drugs used to treat fungal, protozoan, and helminthic diseases are also highly toxic to mammals • Azole derivatives inhibit sterol synthesis • Amphotericin B-disrupts cell membrane

  5. Antimicrobial resistance presents ongoing problems in the fight against infectious diseases 1. Penicillin resistance noted as early as 1943*** 2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-some strains resistant to all drugs 3. Resistance to antibiotics-result of changes in genetic information