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Step Up To: Discovering Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. From: Hockenbury & Hockenbury Discovering Psychology 4e Worth Publishers (2007). Chapter 1: Introduction and Research Methods. Observe & Describe. Test It Out. Perspectives & Specialties. Early Beginnings.

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step up to discovering psychology by john j schulte psy d

Step Up To: Discovering Psychologyby John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

From: Hockenbury & Hockenbury

Discovering Psychology 4e

Worth Publishers (2007)

chapter 1 introduction and research methods
Chapter 1: Introduction and Research Methods

Observe & Describe

Test It Out

Perspectives & Specialties

Early Beginnings

Ethics & Applications

slide3

Early Beginnings

500

400

300

200

100

slide4

Perspectives &

Specialties

500

400

300

200

100

slide5

Observe & Describe

500

400

300

200

100

slide6

Test It Out

500

400

300

200

100

slide7

Ethics & Applications

500

400

300

200

100

1 wilhelm wundt is known as
1. Wilhelm Wundt is known as:
  • A) the founder of psychology as an experimental science.
  • B) the founder of functionalism.
  • C) the founder of structuralism.
  • D) the author of Principles of Psychology, the leading psychology textbook.
slide9
2. In ____, the first school of psychology, conscious processes could be broken down into sensations and feelings by using introspection.
  • A) Behaviorism
  • B) Functionalism
  • C) Structuralism
  • D) Psychoanalysis
3 john b watson and ivan pavlov shared enthusiasm in the approach called
3. John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov shared enthusiasm in the approach called:
  • A) Psychoanalysis.
  • B) Behaviorism.
  • C) Functionalism.
  • D) Structuralism.
emphasized unconscious processes while stressed learned behavior
____ emphasized unconscious processes, while ____ stressed learned behavior.
  • A) Structuralism; Functionalism
  • B) Psychoanalysis; Behaviorism
  • C) Psychoanalysis; Humanism
  • D) Humanism; Behaviorism
5 b f skinner is to as carl rogers is to
5. B.F. Skinner is to ____, as Carl Rogers is to ____.
  • A) underlying conflicts; free will
  • B) behaviorism; functionalism
  • C) externally shaped; free will
  • D) conscious experiences; unconscious processes
6 the perspective focuses on the role of thinking memory and perception on behavior
6. The ____ perspective focuses on the role of thinking, memory and perception on behavior.
  • A) behavioral
  • B) humanistic
  • C) psychodynamic
  • D) cognitive
slide14

7. Dr. Brown theorized that men were more aggressive because it assured that the strongest men would produce more offspring. He was looking at behavior from the ___ perspective.

  • A) humanistic
  • B) biological
  • C) evolutionary
  • D) social
slide15

8. While both have doctoral degrees, the ____ emphasizes psychotherapy and testing, while the ____ emphasizes medication and electroshock.

  • A) clinical psychologist; psychiatrist
  • B) psychiatrist; clinical psychologist
  • C) counseling psychologist; clinical psychologist
  • D) cognitive psychologist; biological psychologist
slide16

9. People exert less effort on a task when they are part of a group than when they are working alone. This may be true in America but not in China, according to ____.

  • A) evolutionary psychology
  • B) cross-cultural psychology
  • C) personality psychology
  • D) humanistic psychology
10 according to studies most psychologists have the specialty area of and are employed at
10. According to studies, most psychologists have the specialty area of ____ and are employed at ____.
  • A) educational; universities
  • B) counseling; universities
  • C) developmental; schools
  • D) clinical; self-employment
11 a mistaken belief that two factors or events are related when they are not is called
11. A mistaken belief that two factors or events are related when they are not is called:
  • A) the rule of falsifiability.
  • B) pseudoscience.
  • C) an illusory correlation.
  • D) paranormal phenomena.
slide19
12. Dr. Brennan wanted to study the behavior of children on the playground. It is likely he would want to use:
  • A) naturalistic observation.
  • B) case studies.
  • C) surveys.
  • D) a control group.
13 when everybody has an equal chance of being included in a study this is called
13. When everybody has an equal chance of being included in a study, this is called:
  • A) a representative sample.
  • B) a survey.
  • C) random selection.
  • D) reliability.
14 if results of research are not likely to have occurred by chance we say the results are
14. If results of research are not likely to have occurred by chance, we say the results are:
  • A) an illusory correlation.
  • B) descriptive.
  • C) valid.
  • D) statistically significant.
15 which of the following correlation coefficients reflects the strongest correlation
15. Which of the following correlation coefficients reflects the strongest correlation?
  • A) +.10
  • B) -.64
  • C) +.35
  • D) -.10
16 in order to prove a cause and effect relationship we must use
16. In order to prove a cause-and-effect relationship, we must use:
  • A) naturalistic observation.
  • B) human subjects.
  • C) the rule of falsifiability.
  • D) the experimental method.
17 in an experiment the group of participants who are exposed to the treatment of interest is the
17. In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to the treatment of interest is the:
  • A) control group.
  • B) independent group.
  • C) treatment group.
  • D) experimental group.
slide25

18. Anderson and Dill (2000) investigated the effects of playing violent video games on aggressive behavior. In this study, aggressive behavior would be the:

  • A) dependent variable.
  • B) independent variable.
  • C) control condition.
  • D) experimental condition.
slide26

19. In their study, Anderson and Dill exposed half the subjects to a violent video game and half of them to a non-violent video game for comparison. Those playing the non-violent game were in the:

  • A) random assignment group.
  • B) experimental group.
  • C) placebo control group.
  • D) low-aggression experimental group.
slide27

20. A study in which neither the participants nor the researcher interacting with them are aware of the condition to which the subjects have been assigned is called:

  • A) expectancy effects.
  • B) a double-blind study.
  • C) placebo effects.
  • D) random assignment.
21 the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of the behavior of nonhuman animals is called
21. The branch of psychology that focuses on the study of the behavior of nonhuman animals is called:
  • A) comparative psychology.
  • B) clinical psychology.
  • C) biological psychology.
  • D) evolutionary psychology.
22 psychological research with animal subjects is governed by an ethical code developed by the
22. Psychological research with animal subjects is governed by an ethical code developed by the:
  • A) ASPCA.
  • B) APA.
  • C) AMA.
  • D) Audubon Society.
23 if you wanted to study how tobacco causes cancer you should use
23. If you wanted to study how tobacco causes cancer, you should use:
  • A) the experimental method with human subjects.
  • B) a survey of cancer patients.
  • C) case studies of smokers.
  • D) the experimental method with animal subjects.
slide31
24: Which of the following is NOT a key provision in the 2002 APA ethical principles regulating research with human participants?
  • A) Never deceive the subject.
  • B) Never disclose personal information about the subject.
  • C) Always obtain informed consent to participate.
  • D) Always debrief the participants after they have participated.
slide32
25. Personal stories told to confirm or support a particular claim are often misleading and are called:
  • A) illusory correlations.
  • B) placebo effects.
  • C) anecdotal evidence.
  • D) pseudoscience.
slide34

Answers

Stop here, or continue as a review

1 wilhelm wundt is known as35
1. Wilhelm Wundt is known as:
  • A) the founder of psychology as an experimental science.
  • B) the founder of functionalism.
  • C) the founder of structuralism.
  • D) the author of Principles of Psychology, the leading psychology textbook.

4

slide36
2. In ____, the first school of psychology, conscious processes could be broken down into sensations and feelings by using introspection.
  • A) Behaviorism
  • B) Functionalism
  • C) Structuralism
  • D) Psychoanalysis

4

3 john b watson and ivan pavlov shared enthusiasm in the approach called37
3. John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov shared enthusiasm in the approach called:
  • A) Psychoanalysis.
  • B) Behaviorism.
  • C) Functionalism.
  • D) Structuralism.

7

emphasized unconscious processes while stressed learned behavior38
____ emphasized unconscious processes, while ____ stressed learned behavior.
  • A) Structuralism; Functionalism
  • B) Psychoanalysis; Behaviorism
  • C) Psychoanalysis; Humanism
  • D) Humanism; Behaviorism

8

5 b f skinner is to as carl rogers is to39
5. B.F. Skinner is to ____, as Carl Rogers is to ____.
  • A) underlying conflicts; free will
  • B) behaviorism; functionalism
  • C) externally shaped; free will
  • D) conscious experiences; unconscious processes

8

6 the perspective focuses on the role of thinking memory and perception on behavior40
6. The ____ perspective focuses on the role of thinking, memory and perception on behavior.
  • A) behavioral
  • B) humanistic
  • C) psychodynamic
  • D) cognitive

10

slide41

7. Dr. Brown theorized that men were more aggressive because it assured that the strongest men would produce more offspring. He was looking at behavior from the ___ perspective.

  • A) humanistic
  • B) biological
  • C) evolutionary
  • D) social

11

slide42

8. While both have doctoral degrees, the ____ emphasizes psychotherapy and testing, while the ____ emphasizes medication and electroshock.

  • A) clinical psychologist; psychiatrist
  • B) psychiatrist; clinical psychologist
  • C) counseling psychologist; clinical psychologist
  • D) cognitive psychologist; biological psychologist

14

slide43

9. People exert less effort on a task when they are part of a group than when they are working alone. This may be true in America but not in China, according to ____.

  • A) evolutionary psychology
  • B) cross-cultural psychology
  • C) personality psychology
  • D) humanistic psychology

12

10 according to studies most psychologists have the specialty area of and are employed at44
10. According to studies, most psychologists have the specialty area of ____ and are employed at ____.
  • A) educational; universities
  • B) counseling; universities
  • C) developmental; schools
  • D) clinical; self-employment

13

11 a mistaken belief that two factors or events are related when they are not is called45
11. A mistaken belief that two factors or events are related when they are not is called:
  • A) the rule of falsifiability.
  • B) pseudoscience.
  • C) an illusory correlation.
  • D) paranormal phenomena.

20

slide46
12. Dr. Brennan wanted to study the behavior of children on the playground. It is likely he would want to use:
  • A) naturalistic observation.
  • B) case studies.
  • C) surveys.
  • D) a control group.

19

13 when everybody has an equal chance of being included in a study this is called47
13. When everybody has an equal chance of being included in a study, this is called:
  • A) a representative sample.
  • B) a survey.
  • C) random selection.
  • D) reliability.

22

14 if results of research are not likely to have occurred by chance we say the results are48
14. If results of research are not likely to have occurred by chance, we say the results are:
  • A) an illusory correlation.
  • B) descriptive.
  • C) valid.
  • D) statistically significant.

16

15 which of the following correlation coefficients reflect the strongest correlation
15. Which of the following correlation coefficients reflect the strongest correlation?
  • A) +.10
  • B) -.64
  • C) +.35
  • D) -.10

23

16 in order to prove a cause and effect relationship we must use50
16. In order to prove a cause-and-effect relationship, we must use:
  • A) naturalistic observation.
  • B) human subjects.
  • C) the rule of falsifiability.
  • D) the experimental method.

25

17 in an experiment the group of participants who are exposed to the treatment of interest is the51
17. In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to the treatment of interest is the:
  • A) control group.
  • B) independent group.
  • C) treatment group.
  • D) experimental group.

27

slide52

18. Anderson and Dill (2000) investigated the effects of playing violent video games on aggressive behavior. In this study, aggressive behavior would be the:

  • A) dependent variable.
  • B) independent variable.
  • C) control condition.
  • D) experimental condition.

25

slide53

19. In their study, Anderson and Dill exposed half the subjects to a violent video game and half of them to a non-violent video game for comparison. Those playing the non-violent game were in the:

  • A) random assignment group.
  • B) experimental group.
  • C) placebo control group.
  • D) low-aggression experimental group.

29

slide54

20. A study in which neither the participants nor the researcher interacting with them are aware of the condition to which the subjects have been assigned is called:

  • A) expectancy effects.
  • B) a double-blind study.
  • C) placebo effects.
  • D) random assignment.

31

21 the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of the behavior of nonhuman animals is called55
21. The branch of psychology that focuses on the study of the behavior of nonhuman animals is called:
  • A) comparative psychology.
  • B) clinical psychology.
  • C) biological psychology.
  • D) evolutionary psychology.

32

22 psychological research with animal subjects is governed by an ethical code developed by the56
22. Psychological research with animal subjects is governed by an ethical code developed by the:
  • A) ASPCA.
  • B) APA.
  • C) AMA.
  • D) Audubon Society.

36

23 if you wanted to study how tobacco causes cancer you should use57
23. If you wanted to study how tobacco causes cancer, you should use:
  • A) the experimental method with human subjects.
  • B) a survey of cancer patients.
  • C) case studies of smokers.
  • D) the experimental method with animal subjects.

31

slide58
24: Which of the following is NOT a key provision in the 2002 APA ethical principles regulating research with human participants?
  • A) Never deceive the subject.
  • B) Never disclose personal information about the subject.
  • C) Always obtain informed consent to participate.
  • D) Always debrief the participants after they have participated.

33

slide59
25. Personal stories told to confirm or support a particular claim are often misleading and are called:
  • A) illusory correlations.
  • B) placebo effects.
  • C) anecdotal evidence.
  • D) pseudoscience.

30

acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • Step Up Created by:

John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

  • Based on Discovering Psychology 4e byHockenbury & Hockenbury
  • Published by Worth Publishers, 2007