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AP Language and Composition. Dimensions of Style . Overview Sentences Words Figures. Dimensions of Style. Sentences : grammatical type, placement of details, variety Words : level of elaborateness and formality, difficulty, technicality Figures : schemes and tropes, figurative language .

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ap language and composition

AP Language and Composition

Dimensions of Style

slide2

Overview

  • Sentences
  • Words
  • Figures
dimensions of style
Dimensions of Style

Sentences: grammatical type, placement of details, variety

Words: level of elaborateness and formality, difficulty, technicality

Figures: schemes and tropes, figurative language

grammatical stuctures
Grammatical Stuctures

Simple

  • Abraham Lincoln struggled to save the Union.

Compound

      • Abraham Lincoln struggled to save the Union, and Andrew Johnson assisted him.

Complex

      • When the leaders of the Confederacy insisted that the rights of the states were more important that the maintenance of the Union, Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson struggled to save the Union.

Compound- Complex

      • When the leaders of the Confederacy insisted that the rights of the states were more important that the maintenance of the Union, Abraham Lincoln struggled to save the Union, and Andrew Johnson assisted him.
loose and periodic
Loose and Periodic

Overall way writer’s incorporate details in to a sentence.

Loose- adds details immediately at the end of the basic elements

  • Abraham Lincoln wept, fearing that the Union would not survive if the southern states seceded.

Periodic – adds details before the basic sentence elements or in the middle of them.

  • Alone in his study, lost in somber thoughts about his beloved country, dejected but not broken in spirit, Abraham Lincoln wept.
  • Abraham Lincoln, alone in his study, lost in somber thoughts about his beloved country, dejected but not broken in spirit, wept.
parallel structure
Parallel Structure

When a writer wants to sound

  • Measured
  • Deliberate
  • Balanced

he/she will express those ideas in the same grammatical form

– words balance words, phrases balance phrases, clauses balance clauses, and sentences balance sentences.

I came; I saw; I conquered.

words
WORDS

Diction from the Latin dicto which means “choice of words”

selection
Selection
  • What words you choose depends on three questions:
      • What is my purpose for writing?
      • Who is my audience?
      • What type of text am I writing?
general v specific words
General v Specific Words

Vary the generality or specificity of your diction in order to address your readers in terms most useful to them.

Examples

  • Transportation physical health benefits
  • Automobiles cardiovascular health benefits
  • SUV benefits to the heart
  • Ford Explorer
formal v informal words
Formal v Informal words

Latinate

  • Facilitate
  • Manufacture
  • Interrogate
  • Maximize
  • Minimize

Anglo-Saxon

  • Help
  • Make
  • Ask
  • Grow
  • Shrink
common terms v slang or jargon
Common Terms v Slang or Jargon

Slang

“language peculiar to a particular group”

  • Old skool
  • The rents

Jargon

“technical terminology of a specific group”

  • Drop down menu
  • DKDC
denotation v connotation
Denotation v Connotation

Denotation

Literal meaning of the word

Cool

  • Cold
  • Chilly

Connotation

Associations emotional or otherwise that the word evokes

Cool

  • Unflappable
  • Icy
figures of rhetoric
Figures of Rhetoric

Schemes: artful variations from the typical arrangements of words in sentences

Tropes: artful variations from the typical or expected way words or ideas are expressed.

schemes involving balance
Schemes involving balance

Parallelism of words

  • Exercise physiologists argue that body-pump aerobics sessions benefit a person’s heart and lungs, muscles and nerves, and joints and cartilage.

Parallelism of phrases

    • Exercise physiologists argue that body-pump aerobics sessions help a person breathe more effectively, move with less discomfort, and avoid injury.

Parallelism of clauses

  • Exercise physiologists argue that body-pump aerobics is the most efficient exercise class, that body-pump participants show greater gains in stamina than participants in comparable exercise programs, and that body-pump aerobics is less expensive in terms of equipment and training needed to lead or take classes.
tropes involving comparisons
Tropes involving Comparisons

Simile

  • An athlete’s mind must be like a well-tuned engine

Metaphor

  • In gear and responding to the twists and curves of the contest

Synecdoche – part used to refer to the whole

  • We decided we could arrange the gym equipment if everyone would lend a hand

Metonymy – entity is referred to by one of its attributes

  • The central office announced new regulations for sports night.