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  1. Racism Presented to Ms. Shahnila Tariq Presented By Zunera Ahmed Roll No. 20 M.Sc. IV

  2. Racism Content of the presentation • Definition of racism • Examples of racism • Racism around the world • Difference between racism and prejudice • Type of Racism • Causes of racism • Effects of Racism in mental health • Anti-racism • Racism prohibition in Islam • Some quotations about anti-racism • Strategies to overcome racism

  3. Racism • The term racism is broader one than racial prejudice and it is generally used to include not only prejudice, but also hostility, discrimination, segregation, and other negative action expressed toward an ethnic group (Oskamp & Schultz, 2005).

  4. Definition of racism • Racism can be broadly defined as attitude, belief, behavior, or institutional arrangement that favors one racial group over another (Farely, 1995). • Conti...

  5. People who are racist and have power in society can act against a whole group. An example of this happened in South Africa until 1990. Up until then, a small number of white people ruled over black people. The government kept people of different races apart. White people were provided with much better homes, schools, and hospitals (Senker , 2009).

  6. Examples of racism

  7. Examples of racism

  8. Racism around the world • Racism exists in most societies. In the united States, for instance, there is racism among white people among white people against Hispanics, African-Americans, and Asians (Senker, 2009). • In India, extreme right-wing Hindus believed Hindus are superior to Muslims (who make up about one-fifth of the population). They say that India should be for the Hindu and majority and are racist toward Muslims (senker, 2009).

  9. Racism and Prejudice Racism Prejudice Some people make judgments about people because of how they look or behave, without even getting to know them. This is called prejudice(Senker 2009). For example, schoolchildren may look at another child in a wheel chair and think he is not very clever or good at his schoolwork because he is disabled. However, he might be a mathematics genius: it just happens that he cannot walk well. • Some people are prejudiced against others who have a different skin color or are from a different ethnic group or culture. They feel superior to them. This is called racism (Senker, 2009). • For instance, in a classroom where most of the children are white, they might bully the few black children.

  10. Types of Racism • Individual racism It assumes the superiority of one’s own racial group, and rationalizes the dominance and power generally whites over African Americans. This racism would be targeted at an individual’s beliefs (Allison & Belgrave, 2009). • Institutional Racism Institutional racism is revealed by policies and practices within organizations and institutions that contribute to discrimination for a group of people. (Allison & Belgrave, 2009) .

  11. Types of Racism • Cultural racism It is seen in the assumed a superiority of a language, values, beliefs, worldviews, and cultural artifacts dominants in a society. (Allison & Belgrave, 2009). Symbolic racism Symbolic racism is reflected in beliefs among whites that racial discrimination is no longer a problem in this society and that African Americans have obtained success because they have not worked hard enough for it (Allison & Belgrave, 2009).

  12. Causes of racism • Socioeconomic status • Mentality of superiority • lack of diversity in the area • Unfamiliarity • Stereotypes • Selfishness • Environmental Factors • Ignorance and peer pressure • False perception • The desire to exploit other people

  13. Effects of racism in mental health • Racism leads to a decrease sense of self-esteem. Positive relationship between racism and psychological stress • Positive relationship between racism and self-esteem and life satisfaction. • Racism also related to trauma-related symptoms (Harrell & Hall, 2003), depression, (Comas-Diaz & Greenes, 1994: Stevenson et al; 1997) • It is also related to general psychological stress (Constantine & Wing, 2006).

  14. Anti- Racism

  15. Racism in Islam Racism is never being liked in Islam. Understand that God Almighty created us in different colors, creeds, races, tribes and nations, not to despise one another, but understand our differences and love one another". Conti….

  16. Racism in Islam • The Quran rehearses the words of the almighty Allah which reasons against racial discrimination and puts an end to it in Islam. • "O Mankind, we created you from a single pair of a male and a female, and made you in to tribes and nations so that you may know each other (not that you despise each other). Verily, the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is he who is most righteous of you." (Al-Quran, Chapter 49, Verse 13) Conti……

  17. Some quotations regarding anti racism • According to Hadees: "All men(includes women) are equal in Islam, the Arab has no superiorityover the non-Arab, nor does the non-Arab have superiority over the Arab,save in the fear of God." (Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him).

  18. Some quotations regarding anti-racism • “I have a dream that one day little black boys and girls will be holding hands with little white boys and girls.”  (Martin Luther King Jr., I Have A Dream)

  19. Strategies to overcome racism • Role of educators • Cooperative learning groups • Eliminatebiases • Behave more as decent human beings • Establish support for mental health • Change yourself before attempting others • Understand the depth of the problem • Determine short term and long term goals • Learn about your community • Speak up if you see racism in action

  20. References Allison, K.W., & Belgrave, F. Z. (2009). Aferican American psychology: from Africa to America. SAGE. Bondio, A., Kaufman, S., & Reilly, K. (2003). Racism: a global reader. M.E. Sharpe. New York. Corlett, A. J. (2003). Race, Racism, and Reparations. Cornell University Press. Wadswarth. Halli, S. S., & Driedger, L. (2000). Race and racism: Canada’s challenge. McGill-Queens. New York.

  21. Schultz, W. P., & Oskamp, S. (2005). Attitudes and Opinions. Routledge. Taylor & Francis group. Macgraw Hills. New York. Senker, C. (2009). Taking Action against Racism. The Rosen Publishing group. Wing, D., & Constantine, G. M. (2006). Addressing racism: facilitating cultural competence in mental health. John Wiley & sons. New York Yang, Q. P. (2000). Ethnic studies: issues and approaches. Suny Press. John Wiley & sons. New York