Integumentary System. Ch 4. CLASSIFICATION OF BODY MEMBRANES. Epithelial memb- epi over conn Serous memb- lines cavities Serous fluid pericardium, pleura, peritoneum Connective memb- lubricating fluid at joints (bursae). INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM (SKIN).
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When hemoglobin oxygen levels are low, both the blood and the skin of Caucasians appear blue (cyanosis). Cyanosis is common during heart failure and severe breathing disorders. Cyanosis also occurs in the mucous membranes and the nails.
Sebaceous glands (oil)- all over the skin, except palms and soles of feet; secretes sebum (keeps hair from being brittle and skin soft and moist and kills bacteria);
Are very active during puberty leading to oily skin during adolescence
If the sebaceous glands become blocked by sebum, whiteheads will appear. If that material oxidizes and dries, a blackhead is formed. Acne is an active infection of the sebaceous glands. Acne can be mild or it can be scarring.
Sudoriferous glands; about 2.5 million per person; 2 types of sweat glands
Eccrine glands- far more numerous and found all over the body; produce sweat, which is primarily water, salt, Vit. C, metabolic wastes (ammonia, urea, uric acid), and lactic acid (attracts mosquitoes); sweat is acidic (4-6) which inhibits growth of bacteria; helps w/ internal body temperature
Apocrine glands- axillary and genital areas; secretions contain those of eccrine plus fatty acids and proteins; may have a milky or yellowish color; functions are quite understood yet, but they are activated by nerve fibers during pain and stress and during sexual foreplay; secretions are odorless, but due to bacteria on skin and FA and proteins, has a musky, unpleasant odor