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Infection Prevention & Control Practices What you need to know…. Reviewed December 2012. STANDARD PRECAUTIONS. 1. Used for all patients, regardless of their diagnosis 2. Applies to all blood & body fluids except sweat. Use the right PPE (personal protective equipment) for the job
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Reviewed December 2012
1. Used for all patients, regardless of their diagnosis
2. Applies to all blood & body fluids except sweat. Use the right PPE (personal protective equipment) for the job
* Face/Eye Protection
* Gowns/Protective Apparel
3. Use Respiratory Etiquette & Cough Hygiene
to minimize the spread of germs
4. Wear a surgical mask when entering the epidural canal to prevent spread of meningococcal meningitis
5. Injection Safety – one needle, one syringe, one time only
6. Clean & disinfect the environment; use appropriate PPE during cleaning
7. Bloodborne pathogen concerns – HIV, HBV, HVC
* Handling blood and body fluids with care
to avoid exposure to bloodborne pathogens
* Cover your “portals of entry” (eyes, nose , mouth, non-intact skin) when potential exposure is possible
* Choose the right gown to protect clothing (paper vs fluid-resistant)
* Use safety devices to reduce risk of needlesticks
* No two-handed recapping of needles
* Annual review of safety devices to mitigate risk
* Always use safe injection practices
REMEMBER THIS: Hands must be washed/decontaminated before touching the patient, and after touching the patient or the patient’s environment, whether gloves are worn or not
linked to disease transmission in the healthcare setting.
Use tepid water, wet hands and apply soap
Use good friction cleaning front and back of hand, paying attention to nails and between fingers for at least 15 seconds
Pat hands dry with paper towel and turn off faucet with a paper towel.
Always use hand washing when hands are VISIBLY soiled
Using Alcohol Gel/Foam:
Apply appropriate amount of foam/gel into palm of hand
Rub hands together using good friction to all surfaces, paying attention to nails and in between fingers
Rub hands together until product is evaporated and hands are completely dry
Wash with soap & water if hands feel tacky or dirty from hand gelProper Hand Washing & Alcohol Gel/Foam Use
* Routine disinfection and cleaning
* Proper body substance & sharps
* Safety devices
* Safe injection practices
* Proper Management of Occupational Exposures
In the event of a needle stick/sharps injury and/or exposure:
1. Clean the area well with soap and water.
2. Seek the necessary medical attention according to the institution’s policy &
procedure; you may receive counseling and prophylactic treatment might be
offered if indicated.
3. Complete the proper documentation according to the facility and/or your
school’s policy & procedure; All facilities require some sort of an “occurrence
report” or “incident report or notification” to be completed at the time of the
4. Follow-up according to the appropriate policy & procedure; these will vary
by facility and by school; it is important to make yourself familiar with the
process at your clinical location.
Understanding the Chain of Infection is the Key to Understanding Transmission-Based Precautions
An infected or colonized source
An Infectious Organism/Pathogen
Chain of Infection
A person with a compromised immune response
Mode of Transmission
* Loss of Appetite
* Unexplained Persistent Weight Loss
* Coughing up Blood
* Profound Fatigue & Weakness
* Nights Sweats
- N-95 Mask FIT TESTING
- Follow up testing on anyone who is exposed
- MRSA – Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus
- VRE – Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus
- MDR – GNR – Multi-Drug Resistant Gram Negative Rod
- C-Diff – Epidemic strain Clostridium Difficile resistant to
These bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics
People with MRSA or VRE are considered “colonized” even in the absence of infection, and can pass the organism on to others.
MRSA/VRE require special isolation precautions which vary depending on where the organism is isolated.About MRSA & VRE