Criteria and indicators for sustainable production of forest biomass for energyForest legislation, forest certification standards, and recommendations and guidelines for forest fuel extraction and wood ash recyclingInge Stupak MøllerForest & Landscape, DenmarkIEA BIOENERGY EXCO58 MEETINGSTOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, 3-5 OCTOBER 2006
WOOD-EN-MAN EU-FP5 • Forest & Landscape Denmark: Karsten Raulund-Rasmussen, Morten Ingerslev, Inge Stupak Møller, Ingeborg Callesen, Hans Peter Ravn, Kjeld Suadicani. • Finnish Forest Research Institute: Antti Asikainen, Karri Pasanen, Dominik Röser, Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari, Anna Saarsalmi, Mikko Kukkola, Pekka Tamminen. • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Erik Karltun, Mats Jonsell, Martin Schrøder, Caroline Rothpfeffer. • Skogforsk, Norway: Anders Lunnan, Nicholas Clarke, Jørn Lileng. • Lithuanian Forest Research Institute: Remigijus Ozolincius, Diana Mizaraitė, Iveta Varnagirytė, Kestutis Armolaitis, Leonardas Kairiukstis. • Estonian University of Life Sciences: Malle Mandre, Henn Pärn, Katri Ots. • Latvian Forestry Research Institute SILAVA:, Talis Gaitnieks, Lelde Vilkriste, Aigars Indriksons. • BOKU, Austria: Klaus Katzensteiner.
How to ensure that the production of forest biomass for energy purposes is in line with sustainable development? What has been done?
Contents • Material • Photos: Main debated environmental problems • Current criteria and indicators (C&I) • legislation • forest certification • Recommendations, guidelines, information material • Do present C&I meet the needs for a sustainable production of forest biomass for energy?
Material • Forest laws and regulations in the Nordic and Baltic countries • PEFC forest certification standards in Europe • FSC forest certification standards in the Nordic and Baltic countries • Recommendations and guidelines for sustainable extraction of forest fuel and wood ash recycling (International, Nordic and Baltic countries, UK) • RecAsh seminar in Karlstad, Sweden, 25-28 Sept. 2006
Compensation or preservationWood ash recycling • Wood ash compensates for: • Mineral nutrient removals • Acidification effects • Not practically possible to compensate with wood ash: • Remote places? • Wood ash do not compensate for: • Nitrogen • Organic matter • Effects of stump harvesting • Biodiversity, insect pests etc.
Compensation measuresWood ash recycling and fertilisation Legislative criteria • Notification to authorities • Sweden: Forestry act (§14) • Compensation measures • wood ash recycling and fertilisation • Prevention of damages by insect pests in stored residues Separate regulation for wood ash recycling to the forest (Denmark) Fertilisation with direct effective mineral fertilisers is prohibited (§21, Estonia) The forest owner or lawful possessor shall obtain a confirmation from the State Forest Service for use of artificial fertilisers in forestland (§39, Latvia) Fertilisation must not contradict the Law on Environmental Protection and the appropriate standard acts (§14, Lithuania) Possibility for the Ministry to issue further regulations concerning fertilisation of forest, and furthermore, the municipality may refuse forest owners permission to fertilise if they find it necessary to prevent major negative effects on the environmental values (§6, Norway). Common advice to the Forestry Act §30 on preservation of the nutrient balance and compensation with wood ash and nitrogen (Sweden).
Prevention of damages by insect pests- Sweden, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, (Norway) Stored Amounts Dimensions of stored amounts Distance to living stands Storage season Length of storage period Treatment of the stored material Coverage of the stored material
Forest certification documents • PEFC forest standards (http://www.pefc.org) • Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK (not all endorsed). • FSC forest standards • Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, (Norway), Sweden
Criterion 2Health and vitality PEFC criteria (MCPFE Lisbon) Criterion 1: Maintenance and Appropriate Enhancement of Forest Resources and their Contribution to Global Carbon Cycles Criterion 2: Maintenance of Forest Ecosystem Health and Vitality (damages caused by biotic and abiotic agents, changes in soil nutrient balance and acidity) Criterion 3: Maintenance and Encouragement of Productive Functions of Forests (wood and non-wood) Criterion 4: Maintenance, Conservation and Appropriate Enhancement of Biological Diversity in Forest Ecosystems Criterion 5: Maintenance and appropriate enhancement of protective functions in forest management (notably soil and water) Criterion 6: Maintenance of other Socio-Economic Functions and Conditions • Survey of soil parameters related to soil fertility (general) • Extraction of nutrients and degradation of site fertility: • removal of crown material only with a certain frequency (Austria, Sweden) • or when it cannot be avoided (Italy) • the removal should be considered in relation to soil fertility, leaching and deposition (Denmark) • actions diminishing the growth potential are prohibited (Slovenia) • whole-tree harvesting should not be practiced where it is likely to have negative effects (United Kingdom). • national guidelines should be followed (Sweden and UK)
Criterion 2 continued…Health and vitality • Fertilisation • omission if the only purpose is increasing timber increment (general) • accepted in specific situations, e.g. restoration, enable regeneration, increase vitality in case of a nutritional need documented by soil or foliar analyses (Austria, Denmark, Germany, Latvia, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden), • accepted when all aspects of environment protection are taken into account (Czech Republic). • wood ash recycling is allowed when performed in agreement with national recommendations (Sweden and Austria) • sludge is allowed with certain restrictions (Latvia) • Root rot • Stump harvesting as a control measure against the spreading the infection of fungal diseases from a regeneration area (Finland)
Criterion 3Productive functions • Intensified harvesting: • the usage levels of products should take proper account of the removal of nutrients (Belgium) • The usage level should not exceed a sustainable level (Czech Republic) • whole-tree harvesting is completely or partly prohibited (Germany, Italy, Luxembourg) • the removal of tops and branches and rotten wood for energy purposes as a supplementary harvest with considerable environmental benefit due to replacement of fossil fuels (Sweden) • in tending operations, dead wood should be left if there is no comprehensive danger (Austria)
Criterion 4Biodiversity • Preservation of dead wood • dead wood of larger dimensions should be left in the forest (general) • also removal of residues should be avoided - provided that it is legally permitted to leave them due to biotic threats as insect pests (Austria and Luxembourg) • branches left after harvesting should not be burned (Switzerland) • all deadwood should be left untouched - unless there is a documented risk of a mass propagation of insect pests - with small-size logging residue however being excepted (Sweden)
Criterion 5Protective functions (soil and water) • Limiting soil preparation (relevant for stump harvesting?) • omit or limit the use of soil preparation (Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Sweden) • large-scale interventions in the forest soil should be avoided (Austria)
Criterion 6Socio-economics • Importance of the forest sector in economics • “Proportion of renewable resources (wood, bark, etc.) in energy supply” as an indicator (Austria) • “….the use of lower-value wood for energy purposes should be promoted at the regional level” as sub-criteria at regional level (Slovenia)
FSC principles 1. Compliance with laws and FSC Principles 2. Tenure and use rights and responsibilities 3. Indigenous peoples' rights 4. Community relations and worker's rights 5. Benefits from the forest 6. Environmental impact 7. Management plan 8. Monitoring and assessment 9. Maintenance of high conservation value forests 10. Plantations
FSC criteria 2. Tenure and use rights and responsibilities • Criteria 2.2: Local communities should maintain control over forest operations 5. Benefits from the forest • Criteria 5.2: Optimal use and local processing • Criteria 5.3: Minimize waste associated with harvesting 6. Environmental impact • Criteria 6.3: Ecological functions (biodiversity and natural cycles that affect the productivity) • Criteria 6.5: Written guidelines (control erosion, minimize forest damage, and protect water resources) • Criteria 6.6: Environmentally friendly non-chemical methods of pest management
2.2: Local communities should have controlled access to buy firewood for own consumption at a price not higher than average market price (Estonian indicator) 6.6: Fertilization is not used. This does not cover the return of ash which prevents the negative impact of removing and burning forest material.(Danish indicator) 5.3:Evidence of by-product use (e.g. use of cutting residues as energy wood)….(Finnish verifier) 6.3: Clean ash from wood burning may be returned as a fertilizer to the ecological cycle of the forest.…The nutrient and heavy metal content must be analysed….(Finnish indicator) 5.2: Efforts to collect information about the potential buyers of timber, energy wood…. Records of sales by forest products, including energy wood….(Finnish verifier) 6.5: In collecting harvest slash for wood energy, the recommendations of the Forestry Development Centre Tapio shall be adhered to (Finnish indicator) 6.3: Dead trees, high stumps and old windthrows are safeguarded. Small-dimension harvesting residues are exempt, and so is deadwood providing breeding substrate for noxious insects .….(Swedish indicator) 6.3: Landowners or representativesadding nutrients or extracting biofuels should demonstrate that these operations do not conflict with the criterion.….reference to recommendations and regulations….new research findings should be considered (Swedish indicator)
Recommendations & guidelinesTopics • Working environment, health and safety • Landscape, culture, archaeology, leisure, non-wood goods • Social values, regional development, employment, gender • Production costs and economy • Markets, sales, competitiveness • Public participation • Establishment of energy plants • Wood firing, combustion, gasification, plant operation • Energy distribution • Plant emissions, waste production, noise, dust, smell etc. • Wood ash recycling • Policy, legislation, subsidies, institutional frameworks • Nutrient balances, site fertility and wood production • Acidification • Organic matter and carbon • Biodiversity and wildlife • Pest insects • Hydrology, water quality, water courses • Damages by vehicles, soil erosion • Silviculture • Harvesting methods and technology, transport, logistics • Processing, handling, storage • Fuel quality, characteristics, standardisation
Nutrients and acidification • “Site classification” according to sensitivity to forest fuel extraction • Share of nutrients left in the single harvesting operation • Type and number of extractions during the rotation • Use of compensation fertilisation • Spatial distribution of the left residues • Time for the nutrient removal and fertiliser addition in relation to the season and stand development stage • Documentation
Wood ash recycling • Purpose of the fertilisation • Classification of sites according to suitability for wood ash application, including demands on soil quality • Requirements for wood ash quality • Methods for documentation of the wood ash quality: sampling, chemical analysis, and frequency of sampling. • Hardening methods • Dosage and rate of application • Work method, time of application in relation to stand development stage and season • Need for nitrogen fertilisation • Documentation
Biodiversity Spare elements important for biodiversity at various hierarchical levels: • Nature conservation areas and valuable nature types • Rare tree species, species especially valuable for biodiversity • Other tree and bushes left for nature conservation purposes, e.g. old trees • Standing or lying dead wood and decaying wood in different stages of decomposition • Harvesting residues • Other nature objects as bird nests, anthills, fox earths etc.
Pest insect • Recognising exceptional weather conditions • Amount and type of material left • Location of stored material in relation to living trees • Storage time and season in relation to swarming periods • Separate handling of material with different risk potentials • Coverage the of stored material
Damage by vehicles Avoid damages on soil, tree roots, water courses, and paths by: • Using best possible technology • Driving when the soil carrying capacity is highest • Using brush mats to increase soil carrying capacity • Restrictions on movements in landscape, terrain, and stand • Use of specialized equipment • Planning: considering the site constraints on harvesting at an early stage • Developing codes of practice for specific sites and regions (soil erosion)
Organic matter • Preservation - minimizing disturbance • Herbicides rather than fire and mechanical weed control • Increasing site fertility • Fertilisation
Hydrology • Removal of nitrogen • Fertilisation to avoid acidification • Zones around ditches and water courses (harvesting, especially stumps, and storage) • Avoiding stump harvesting in water catchments • Avoid blocking of drains, minimization of drain and stream crossings
Do C&I meet the need for sustainable forest fuel extraction and wood ash recycling?Recommendations and guidelines • Policy, legislation, subsidies, institutional frameworks • Nutrient balances, site fertility and wood production • Acidification • Organic matter and carbon • Biodiversity and wildlife • Pest insects • Hydrology, water quality, water courses • Damages by vehicles, soil erosion • Silviculture • Harvesting methods and technology, transport, logistics • Processing, handling, storage • Fuel quality, characteristics, standardisation • Working environment, health and safety • Landscape, culture, archaeology, leisure, non-wood goods • Social values, regional development, employment, gender • Production costs and economy • Markets, sales, competitiveness • Public participation • Establishment of energy plants • Wood firing, combustion, gasification, plant operation • Energy distribution • Plant emissions, waste production, noise, dust, smell etc. • Wood ash recycling • Largely, all relevant generic criteria can be found in existing recommendations, guidelines, information materials, and certification standards • Indicators and verifiers are needed for some criteria • Clarification • Reference to other legislation • Mapping or local consultation • Development of standards, setting threshold values • Education and information • Best available technology, technological developments • More research as support for political ordering of priorities and development of standards • Forest-energy policy
Do C&I meet the need for sustainable forest fuel extraction and wood ash recycling?Recommendations and guidelines • Sweden and Finland: Criteria and indicators are up-to-date. Continuous updates will take place. • Denmark: Criteria and thresholds of recommendations and wood ash regulation could be updated. Regulation for wood ash recycling is currently being updated. • Lithuania: Criteria and thresholds of recommendations for wood ash recycling are up-to-date. Criteria and thresholds of recommendations for forest fuel extraction have not been elaborated. • Other countries: First generation recommendations and regulations have not been elaborated. Very variableamong countries….
Do C&I meet the need for sustainable forest fuel extraction and wood ash recycling?Forest certification • Criteria and indicators: • more operational • more systematically incorporated • Auditing: • more focus on indicators related to forest fuel harvesting, cf. UPM Kymmene
Sustainable development ? Do C&I meet the need for sustainable forest fuel extraction and wood ash recycling?Policy Decisions in case of trade-off Forest energy policy Negative environmental effect in the forest Positive environmental effect globally Intensity of the utilisation
Available amount Restrictions Taxes & subsidies Do C&I meet the need for sustainable forest fuel extraction and wood ash recycling?Policy Implementation at the appropriate level: • Recommendations as in Sweden and Finland? • Forest certification as suggested by CLEAN-E project? • Other certification (e.g. ISO, EMAS)? • Legislation and regulations? (e.g.: uncontaminated wood ash should not be defined as hazardous waste, but as a product)
Recommendations & guidelinesReferences • Sweden: • Egnell G, Nohrstedt H-Ö, Weslien J, Westling O, Örlander G. Description of Environmental Consequences of forest fuel extraction, wood ash amendment and other nutrient compensation. 1998 • Swedish Forest Agency. Forest fuel, threat or possibility – guidance to an environmentally friendly removal of forest fuel. 2001 • Swedish Forest Agency. Recommendations for the extraction of forest fuel and compensation fertilizing. 2002 • Finland • Forestry Development Centre Tapio. Extraction of energy wood. 2005 • Nurmi J, Kokko A, editors. The effects of intensified biomass harvesting in Forest. 2001 • Denmark • The Forest Agency. Ecological consequences of increased biomass utilisation in forests. 1985 • Pedersen LR, Hald S. Wood for energy, wood chips and fire wood. 1996 • Centre for Biomass Technology. Wood for Energy Production. Technology - Environment – Economy. 2002 • Lithuania • Ozolinčius R, Armolaitis K, Mikšys V, Varnagirytė I. Recommendations for wood ash compensation fertilizing. 2005 • UK • Nisbeth T, Dutch J, Moffat A. Whole-tree Harvesting – A guide to Good Practice. 1997 • British Biogen. Wood Fuel from Forestry and Arboriculture – the development of a sustainable energy production industry. 1999 • Austria • Splechtna B, Glatzel G. The option to supply biomass from forests and energy plantations for energy use. Scenarios, ecological effects, and research need. 2005 • International • Richardson J, Björheden R, Hakkila P, Lowe AT, Smith CT, editors. Bioenergy from Sustainable Forestry - guiding principles and practice. 2002 • Emilsson S. International Handbook. From Extraction of Forest Fuels to Ash Recycling. First draft. 2005 • Vares V, editor. Manual for Biofuel users. 2006 • (Guidelines at company level)