Final Jeopardy. Phylogeny. Final Jeopardy. What are Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya. The three main categories on the phylogenetic tree of life. $200. What is Supernaturalism?. This idea holds that “God” created Life. $400. What is Vitalism?.
What are Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya
The three main categories on the phylogenetic tree of life
What is Supernaturalism?
This idea holds that “God” created Life
What is Vitalism?
The theory that life is the result of a force like gravity
What is the theory of Panspermia?
The theory that life is introduced to the Earth by meteorite impacts
What is the heterotroph Hypothesis or primordial soup theory?
The theory that life arises from the build up of organic compounds in the ocean
Who was A. I. Oparin or J. B. S. Haldane?
Proposed the heterotroph hypothesis
What is the simplest definition of evolution?
What is a change in gene frequencies in a population over time?
The modern definition of evolution
What is Darwin’s definition of evolution?
Descent with modifications
What is a fact of evolution?
Animals alive today that were not in the past
What is Macroevolution?
Microevolutionary change that builds up over time
What is the length of time life has been evolving on Earth?
3.5 billion years
What was the first form of life on Earth?
What is process of photosynthesis?
This increases the rate of evolution by releasing oxygen into the atmosphere
When did dinosaurs go extinct?
65 million years ago
What is life moving out onto land?
This event sped up the rate of evolution even after the evolution of sex
What are trilobites?
Very old arthropods, extinct and related to insects and crabs
What are Ammonites?
Related to squids and considered to be the fish of the oceans before fish
What is the Cretaceous?
Time period most associated with dinosaurs
What is stasis?
Fossils don’t actually tell us about change they really illustrate this idea
What is amber?
Compressed fossilized tree sap that often contains insects
When did modern humans arise?
200,000 years ago
What is binocular vision?
Trait inherited from our tree dwelling ancestors that allows us to see in three dimensions
What were Neanderthals?
This member of the Genus Homo lived at the same time as us but died out about 25,000 years ago
What is “LUCY”?
The most famous Australopithecine
What is Homo antecessor?
Our most recent ancestor of the following: Homo habilis, Homo neanderthalensis, Paranthropus robustus, Homo antecessor
What is extinction?
Common in evolutionary history and always associated with environmental change
What is artificial selection?
An example of this is the multitude of dog breeds
What is the Precambrian?
The oldest geologic time period
What are the characteristics of a good theory?
Broad, testable, well supported and useful
What is contingency?
The idea that events in the past effect events in the future
What is the “Origin of Species”?
Published in 1859
What are the years of Darwin’s voyage on the Beagle?
What is natural selection?
According to Darwin this is the mechanism by which organisms evolve
What are the Galapagos islands?
Darwin visited these now famous islands near Ecuador in 1832
What is gradualism?
Darwin’s idea concerning the speed at which evolution happens
Who is Charles Lyell?
He helped Darwin by describing the Earth as a very old place
Who was Thomas Malthus?
He helped Darwin by describing a struggle for existence resulting from over-population
What is artificial selection?
Examples of this phenomenon include animal and plant breeding
What is the theory of evolution by natural selection
Characteristics of this theory include: over-production of offspring and variation in offspring
What is variation?
The most important characteristic of organisms Darwin made on his trip on the Beagle
Who was Aristotle?
The scientist that developed the idea of the “Great Chain of Being”
Who was Jean Baptiste Lamarck?
A scientist that thought organisms evolved because they saw the “need “ to do so
Who were Niles Eldridge and Stephen Gould?
Scientists that developed the theory of evolution by punctuated equilibrium
Who were Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase?
They developed the theory that all life has DNA as its genetic material
Who was Anaximander?
He claimed back in about 600BC that life originally came from the sea
What are fossils?
Dead and most commonly preserved in stone
What are homologous structures
Bird wing, human arm,
What is biochemical evidence
All life forms have DNA and make proteins
What is embryology
The zygotes of fish and reptiles and mammals resemble eachother
What is microevolution?
Small scale changes that happen in organisms over a relatively short period of time
What is a virus?
This may be the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus
What is the jaw?
This may have developed as a result of fish trying to improve their ability to breathe
Who was Fitzroy
The captain of the
H. M. S. Beagle
The earliest known member of the Chordata phylum
He developed the “Open Faced Sandwich” theory
Who is Bill Nye?
The “science guy”
Hat is the “Planet of the Apes”
A movie containing a scene of a destroyed statue of liberty
What are planetesimals?
Structures that are thought to have formed the planets
What are meteorite collisions with the Earth?
These may have caused many extinctions including that of the dinosaurs
Who is David Attenborough?
The host of the
“Life on Earth”