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Dep. of Chemistry & Biochemistry Prof. Indig. Chemistry 501 Handout 13 Bioenergetics and Biochemical Reaction Types Chapter 13. Lehninger. Principles of Biochemistry. by Nelson and Cox, 5 th Edition; W.H. Freeman and Company. Energy coupling links reactions in biology.

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chemistry 501 handout 13 bioenergetics and biochemical reaction types chapter 13

Dep. of Chemistry & Biochemistry

Prof. Indig

Chemistry 501 Handout 13Bioenergetics and Biochemical Reaction TypesChapter 13

Lehninger. Principles of Biochemistry.

by Nelson and Cox, 5th Edition; W.H. Freeman and Company

slide2

Energy coupling links reactions in biology

Cell function depends largely on molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, for which the free energy of formation is positive. To carry out these thermodynamically unfavorable reactions, cells couple them to other reactions that liberate free energy, so that the overall process is exergonic.

The usual source of free energy in coupled biological

reactions is the energy released by hydrolysis of

phosphoanhydride bonds, such as those of adenosine

triphosphate (ATP).

DG = DH - TDS

DG = DGo + RT ln Q

DG > 0 ---> nonspontaneous process (endergonic)

DG < 0 ---> spontaneous process (exergonic)

DG = 0 ---> equilibrium (DGo = - RT ln Keq)

slide3

DG = DG’o + RT ln [C]c[D]d

[A]a[B]b

aA + bB <--> cC + dD

DG’o = - RT ln k’eq

slide5

DG = DG’o + RT ln [C]c[D]d

[A]a[B]b

DG = DG’o + RT ln [C]c[D]d

[A]a[B]b

mass-action ratio, Q

Energy coupling in mechanical and chemical processes

The direction of the reaction towards

equilibrium (as well as the actual reaction

DG) depends on Q

slide6

The central role of ATP

in metabolism

The free energy change for ATP

hydrolysis is large and negative

slide7

DG = DG’o + RT ln [C]c[D]d

[A]a[B]b

mass-action ratio, Q

DGp = DG’o + RT ln [ADP][Pi]

= -52 kJ/mol

[ATP]

The direction of the reaction towards

equilibrium (as well as the actual reaction

DG) depends on Q

phosphorylation potential

slide8

Other phosphorilated compounds

and thioesters also have large free

energies of hydrolysis

slide10

ATP provides energy by group transfer, not by simple hydrolysis

Ranking of biological phosphate compounds

by standard free energies of hydrolysis

ATP Hydrolysis

slide13

Biological oxidation-reduction reactions

E = E’o + RT/nF ln [acceptor]/[donor]

DE’o = E’o (electron acceptor)- E’o (electron donor)

DG’o = - nF DE’o

slide14

A few types of coenzymes and proteins serve as universal electron carriers

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide