Chapter 10 Thinking and Language
10-1 10-1 Thinking 1. Describe the nature of concepts and the role of prototypes in concept formation. 2. Discuss how we use trial and error, algorithms, heuristics, and insight to solve problems. 3. Describe how the confirmation bias and fixation can interfere with effective problem solving. 4. Explain how the representativeness and availability heuristics influence our judgments. 5. Describe the effects that overconfidence and framing can have on our judgments and decisions. 6. Discuss how our beliefs distort logical reasoning, and describe the belief perseverancephenomenon. 7. Describe artificial intelligence, and contrast the human mind and the computer as information processors.
10-1 Thinking • Q1. A man bought a horse for $60 and sold it for $70. Then he bought the same horse back for $80 and again sold it for $90. How much money did he make in the horse business? • Q2. A man bought a horse for $60 and sold it for $70. Then he bought firewood for $80 and again sold it for $90. How much money did he make? • Question 2 is much easier b/c of the way that the question is framed. • Framing - the way an (issue or question) is posed • how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments (it may or may not—ie open ended question) • Another Example: What is the best way to market ground beef--as 25% fat or 75% lean?
10-1 Thinking • thinking- the mental activity involved in the understanding, processing, and communication of info aka <<cognition>> • Cognitive Psychologists • study these mental activities • concept formation • problem solving • decision making • judgment formation
10-1 Thinking • Concept • mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people • ex. concept of a ball-football, golf ball, basketball, baseball, bouncing ball, crystal ball • Concepts can be subdivided into hierarchies • Prototype • mental image or best example of a category • matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)
10-1 Thinking • Algorithm • methodical,formulaic logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem • contrasts with the usually speedier–but also more error-prone--use of heuristics
10-1 10-1 Thinking • Heuristic • “Cognitive shortcut” • simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently • usually speedier than algorithms • more error-prone than algorithms
10-1 Thinking Unscramble S P L O Y O C H Y G • Algorithm • all 907,208 combinations • Heuristic • throw out all YY combinations • other heuristics?
10-1 Thinking • Insight • sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem without; an “epiphany” • contrasts with strategy-based solutions • Exc: The “Aha!” Experience
10-1 Thinking Fig 1: side view of squinting face or soldier & dog passing archway? Fig 2: ghoul & ears looking over fence or custodian cleaning floor?
10-1 Thinking • You just me • Stood well View HUH? What is the smallest # of links that need to be opened and resoldered to make a continous chain of 15?
10-1 Thinking • Riddles: • The maker doesn’t want it, the buyer doesn’t use it, and the user doesn’t see it. What is it? Coffin • A man left home one morning. He turned right and ran striaght ahead. Then he turned left. After a while, he turned left again, running faster than ever. Then he turned left once more and decided to go home. In the distance he could see two masked men waiting for him. Who were they? The umpire and the other team’s catcher • Translate: YYURYYUBICURYY4ME Too wise you are, too wise you be, I see you are, too wise for me.
10-1 Thinking • Confirmation Bias • tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions and ignore contradictory information • David Levy Study-- • Asked college kids to interview to determine introversion/ extroversion • ½ were asked to det if interviewee was ext (asked ext rel q’s) • ½ to det if int was int (asked int rel q’s) • Therapists may selectively elicit clinical information that affirms their initial diagnostic impressions • Ie. Have you had occasion to drink alone? (who hasn’t – are we all alcs?)
10-1 Thinking Objectives: 3. Describe how the confirmation bias and fixation can interfere with effective problem solving. 4. Explain how the representativeness and availability heuristics influence our judgments. 6. Discuss how our beliefs distort logical reasoning, and describe the belief perseverancephenomenon. 8. Describe the structure of language in terms of sounds, meanings, and grammar.
10-1 Thinking • Fixation • inability to see a problem from a new perspective • impediment to problem solving • Once we incorrectly represent the problem, it’s hard to restructure how we approach it
10-1 10-1 The Matchstick Problem • How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?
10-1 The Matchstick Problem • Solution to the matchstick problem
10-1 Thinking • Mental Set • tendency to approach a problem in a particular way • especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem • Like a perceptual set but it affects problem solving • << ment set is a type of fixation as is functional fixedness>>
10-1 Thinking • What number is next in this series? 10,4,3,11,15……..? a. 14 b. 1 c. 17 d. 12 Ten Four Three Eleven Fifteen fourteen
10-1 Thinking • Functional Fixedness • tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions • impediment to problem solving • Ie. Looking all over house for a screwdriver instead of using nickel in pocket. • Walking through rain w/ newspaper under arm rather than using as umbrella
10-1 The Candle-Mounting Problem • Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board?
10-1 The Candle-Mounting Problem • Solving this problem requires recognizing that a box need not always serve as a container
10-1 10-1 Heuristics • Representativeness Heuristic • judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes • may lead one to ignore other relevant information
10-1 10-1 Heuristics – Rep • Linda is 31, single, outspoken and very bright. She majored in philosophy in college. As a student, she was deeply concerned with discrimination and other social issues, and she participated in antinuclear demonstrations. Which statement is more likely? • Linda is a bank teller • Linda is a bank teller and active in the feminist movement >>the probability of 2 uncertain events occurring together is always less than the odds of either happening alone. P 389-390: Truck Driver or Poet??
10-1 Heuristics • Availability Heuristic • estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory • if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common • Example: airplane crash seen on news leads one to drive • Classroom exc-deaths per 100k
10-1 Thinking • Overconfidence • tendency to be more confident than correct • tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments
10-1 Thinking • Belief Bias • the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning • sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid
10-1 Thinking No Gox box when in purple socks. Jocks is a Gox wearing purple socks. Therefore Jocks does not now box. Logical Conclusion? No cars run when they’re out of fuel. My car is out of fuel. Therefore my car does not now run. Logical Conclusion?
10-1 Thinking • >>both are valid but we are not strictly logical thinkers and beliefs can distort logic which is why the 2nd conclusion is easier to ascertain
10-1 Thinking Some A are B. Some B are C. Therefore some A are C. Seems Logical, Right? Some women are Democrats. Some Democrats are men. Therefore some women are men. • Maybe not. >>both are invalid
10-1 Thinking Some A are B. Some B are C. Therefore some A are C. Some cars are Toyotas. Some Toyotas are trucks. Therefore some cars are trucks.
10-1 Thinking • Belief Perseverance • clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited • Once we form belief, we ignore contrary evidence • Once beliefs form and get justified, it takes more compelling evidence to change them than it did to create them • Ex p 396 Mark Lepper firefighters as cautious or risk taker pers type
10-1 Artificial Intelligence • “Mary saw a bicycle in the store window. She wanted it.” • We draw from vast amts of knowledge and schemas that have nothing to do w/ syntax. We know 100 mil things about the world. • Does a computer know what Mary wants? • Artificial Intelligencedesigning and programming computer systems • to do intelligent things • to simulate human thought processes • intuitive reasoning • learning • understanding language • Check out: http://www.cyc.org
10-1 Artificial Intelligence • Computer Neural Networks • computer circuits that mimic the brain’s interconnected neural cells • performing tasks • learning to recognize visual patterns • learning to recognize smells
10-2 Language • Language Structure • phonemes – smallest distinctive sound unit of a language • a set of basic sounds • ex. b, a, t, ch, k, s • English language has about 40 • consonant phonemes carry more info than vowel phonemes • <<The treth of thes statement shed be evedent frem thes bref demenstrtretien.>> • people who grow up learning one set of phonemes usually have difficulty pronouncing phonemes from other languages • ex. th sound tough for a German, says “dis” for this • Ich (German for I) is tough for native Eng spkrs
10-2 Language • Chat- How many phonemes? • 3 – CH A T • morpheme- the smallest unit of language that carries meaning • usually a combo of 2 or more phonemes • however, some phonemes are also morphemes • ex. I • some morphemes are words like bat, but prefixes and suffixes are also morphemes • —bat(s)- 2 morphemes • Undesirables- How many morphemes? • 4- UN DESIR ABLE S
10-2 Language grammar- system of rules that enables us to communicate w/ and understand others – made up of syntax and semantics semantics – the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words and sentences ex. adding –ed to a verb makes it past tense syntax – rules for ordering words into sentences ex. adj. Come before nouns -not true in Spanish (white house v casa blanca)
10-2 10-2 Language • 9. Trace the course of language acquisition from the babbling stage through language explosion stage. • 10. Explain how the nature-nurture debate is illustrated in the various theories of language development.
10-2 Language Development • U know apx 80k words • After age 1 – learn avg of 13/ day and 5k/ yr • Most parents struggle stating rules of syntax but before children can add 2+2, they’re creating grammatically correct sentences • Preschoolers comprehend & speak w/ a facility that puts college students trying to learn for lang to shame • Children know that sounds comm meaning and thus move from babbling to one word stage
10-2 Language Development • Acquiring Language • infants are born w/ no language • by 4 months can understand cause and effect and discriminate speech sounds > marks beginning of the babbling stage • when babies utter nonsense sounds unrelated to the language of their parents -ex. ah-goo, da-da-da-da-da • not an imitation of adult speech • you can’t discern nationality from babbling and deaf children also babble • before 10 months babies can make a wide variety of phonemes, they begin to lose this ability at this point • by 10 months babbling has changed enough to guess nationality
10-2 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage able to discriminate Hindi t’s Hindi- speaking adults 6-8 months 8-10 months 10-12 months English- speaking adults Infants from English-speaking homes Language • We are all born to recognize speech sounds from all the world’s languages
10-2 Language • One-Word Stage (12 mos)
10-2 Language • Two-Word Stage • beginning about age 2 • the stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statements • Also Called: Telegraphic Speech • child speaks like a telegram-–“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words
10-2 Summary of Language Development Month (approximate) Stage Babbles many speech sounds. 4 Babbling reveals households language. 10 12 One-word stage. 24 Two-word, telegraphic speech. 24+ Language develops rapidly into complete sentences. Language *18 mo – go from 1 new word/ wk to 1/ day
10-2 Language • Genes design the mechanisms for a language, and experience activates them as it modifies the brain
10-2 Percentage correct on grammar test 100 90 80 70 60 50 Native 3-7 8-10 11-15 17-39 Age at school Language • New language learning gets harder with age
10-2 Explaining Language Development • Nature v. Nurture Debate resurfaces • Chomsky v. Skinner • BF Skinner (behaviorist-Nurture)-explained lang dev w/ learning principles 1. Association-sight of things w/ sound 2. Imitation/ Modeling/ Observational Learning-of words spoken by others 3. Reinforcement-success, smiles & hugs
10-2 Language • Noam Chomsky (Nativist Theory)—disagrees • Believes children do learn from environment <<BUT>> • They acquire untaught words & grammar too quickly to be explained solely by learning. • Stated Skinner failed to exp how kids learn syntax w/o having been taught grammar >>children generate unique, complex sentences that they’ve never heard >>idea of L.A.D. – Language Acquisition Device and Critical Period >>principles of language are in our genes >>Lenneberg >>Overregularization/ Overgeneralization of Grammar supports idea of universal grammar/ language (Chomsky) ie. He “holded” the candy.
10-2 Language • 11. Discuss Whorf’s linguistic determinism hypothesis and the relationship between thought and language. • 12. Describe the research on animal intelligence and communication and discuss the controversy over whether animals have language.
10-2 Thinking & Language Linguistic Determinism (Linguistic Relativism) • Whorf”s hypothesis that language determines the way we think • Hopi no past tense (Whorf thought they couldn’t conceptualize past) • Eng v Jap (Eng-lots of self-focused vocab, Jap-more vocab for interpersonal relations)-bilinguals report different sense of self depending on what language they’re using • Univ of Waterloo Study (2002) asked China-born bilingual students to desc self in Chinese and English • In English-self desc mostly positive self statements • In Chinese-equal positive and negative self-statements (balance) >>lang shaped how they thought about themselves