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Chapter 10 Thinking and Language. 10-1. 10-1 Thinking. 1.  Describe the nature of concepts and the role of prototypes in concept formation. 2.  Discuss how we use trial and error, algorithms, heuristics, and insight to solve problems.

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slide1
Chapter 10

Thinking and Language

10 1 thinking

10-1

10-1 Thinking

1.  Describe the nature of concepts and the role of prototypes in concept formation.

2.  Discuss how we use trial and error, algorithms, heuristics, and insight to solve problems.

3.  Describe how the confirmation bias and fixation can interfere with effective problem solving.

4.  Explain how the representativeness and availability heuristics influence our judgments.

5.  Describe the effects that overconfidence and framing can have on our judgments and decisions.

6.  Discuss how our beliefs distort logical reasoning, and describe the belief perseverancephenomenon.

7.  Describe artificial intelligence, and contrast the human mind and the computer as information processors.

thinking

10-1

Thinking
  • Q1. A man bought a horse for $60 and sold it for $70. Then he bought the same horse back for $80 and again sold it for $90. How much money did he make in the horse business?
  • Q2. A man bought a horse for $60 and sold it for $70. Then he bought firewood for $80 and again sold it for $90. How much money did he make?
  • Question 2 is much easier b/c of the way that the question is framed.
  • Framing - the way an (issue or question) is posed
    • how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments (it may or may not—ie open ended question)
    • Another Example: What is the best way to market ground beef--as 25% fat or 75% lean?
thinking1

10-1

Thinking
  • thinking- the mental activity involved in the understanding, processing, and communication of info

aka <<cognition>>

  • Cognitive Psychologists
    • study these mental activities
      • concept formation
      • problem solving
      • decision making
      • judgment formation
thinking2

10-1

Thinking
  • Concept
    • mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
    • ex. concept of a ball-football, golf ball, basketball,

baseball, bouncing ball, crystal ball

    • Concepts can be subdivided into hierarchies
  • Prototype
    • mental image or best example of a category
      • matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)
thinking3

10-1

Thinking
  • Algorithm
    • methodical,formulaic logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
    • contrasts with the usually speedier–but also more error-prone--use of heuristics
thinking4

10-1

10-1

Thinking
  • Heuristic
    • “Cognitive shortcut”
    • simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently
    • usually speedier than algorithms
    • more error-prone than algorithms
thinking5

10-1

Thinking

Unscramble

S P L O Y O C H Y G

  • Algorithm
    • all 907,208 combinations
  • Heuristic
    • throw out all YY combinations
    • other heuristics?
thinking6

10-1

Thinking
  • Insight
    • sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem without; an “epiphany”
    • contrasts with strategy-based solutions
    • Exc: The “Aha!” Experience
thinking7

10-1

Thinking

Fig 1: side view of squinting face or soldier & dog passing archway?

Fig 2: ghoul & ears looking over fence or custodian cleaning floor?

thinking8

10-1

Thinking
  • You just me
  • Stood

well

View

HUH?

What is the smallest # of links that need to be opened and resoldered to make a continous chain of 15?

thinking9

10-1

Thinking
  • Riddles:
  • The maker doesn’t want it, the buyer doesn’t use it, and the user doesn’t see it. What is it?

Coffin

  • A man left home one morning. He turned right and ran striaght ahead. Then he turned left. After a while, he turned left again, running faster than ever. Then he turned left once more and decided to go home. In the distance he could see two masked men waiting for him. Who were they?

The umpire and the other team’s catcher

  • Translate: YYURYYUBICURYY4ME

Too wise you are, too wise you be, I see you are, too wise for me.

thinking10

10-1

Thinking
  • Confirmation Bias
    • tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions and ignore contradictory information
    • David Levy Study--
    • Asked college kids to interview to determine introversion/ extroversion
    • ½ were asked to det if interviewee was ext (asked ext rel q’s)
    • ½ to det if int was int (asked int rel q’s)
    • Therapists may selectively elicit clinical information that affirms their initial diagnostic impressions
    • Ie. Have you had occasion to drink alone? (who hasn’t – are we all alcs?)
thinking11

10-1

Thinking

Objectives:

3.  Describe how the confirmation bias and fixation can interfere with effective problem solving.

4.  Explain how the representativeness and availability heuristics influence our judgments.

6.  Discuss how our beliefs distort logical reasoning, and describe the belief perseverancephenomenon.

8.  Describe the structure of language in terms of sounds, meanings, and grammar.

thinking12

10-1

Thinking
  • Fixation
    • inability to see a problem from a new perspective
    • impediment to problem solving
    • Once we incorrectly represent the problem, it’s hard to restructure how we approach it
the matchstick problem

10-1

10-1

The Matchstick Problem
  • How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?
the matchstick problem1

10-1

The Matchstick Problem
  • Solution to the matchstick problem
thinking13

10-1

Thinking
  • Mental Set
    • tendency to approach a problem in a particular way
    • especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem
    • Like a perceptual set but it affects problem solving
    • << ment set is a type of fixation as is functional fixedness>>
thinking14

10-1

Thinking
  • What number is next in this series?

10,4,3,11,15……..?

a. 14 b. 1 c. 17 d. 12

Ten

Four

Three

Eleven

Fifteen

fourteen

thinking15

10-1

Thinking
  • Functional Fixedness
    • tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
    • impediment to problem solving
    • Ie. Looking all over house for a screwdriver instead of using nickel in pocket.
    • Walking through rain w/ newspaper under arm rather than using as umbrella
the candle mounting problem

10-1

The Candle-Mounting Problem
  • Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board?
the candle mounting problem1

10-1

The Candle-Mounting Problem
  • Solving this problem requires recognizing that a box need not always serve as a container
heuristics

10-1

10-1

Heuristics
  • Representativeness Heuristic
    • judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes
    • may lead one to ignore other relevant information
heuristics rep

10-1

10-1

Heuristics – Rep
  • Linda is 31, single, outspoken and very bright. She majored in philosophy in college. As a student, she was deeply concerned with discrimination and other social issues, and she participated in antinuclear demonstrations. Which statement is more likely?
  • Linda is a bank teller
  • Linda is a bank teller and active in the feminist movement

>>the probability of 2 uncertain events occurring together is always less than the odds of either happening alone.

P 389-390: Truck Driver or Poet??

heuristics1

10-1

Heuristics
  • Availability Heuristic
    • estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
    • if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
    • Example: airplane crash seen on news leads one to drive
    • Classroom exc-deaths per 100k
thinking16

10-1

Thinking
  • Overconfidence
    • tendency to be more confident than correct
    • tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments
thinking17

10-1

Thinking
  • Belief Bias
    • the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
    • sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid
thinking18

10-1

Thinking

No Gox box when in purple socks.

Jocks is a Gox wearing purple socks.

Therefore Jocks does not now box.

Logical Conclusion?

No cars run when they’re out of fuel.

My car is out of fuel.

Therefore my car does not now run.

Logical Conclusion?

thinking19

10-1

Thinking
  • >>both are valid but we are not strictly logical thinkers and beliefs can distort logic which is why the 2nd conclusion is easier to ascertain
thinking20

10-1

Thinking

Some A are B.

Some B are C.

Therefore some A are C.

Seems Logical, Right?

Some women are Democrats.

Some Democrats are men.

Therefore some women are men.

  • Maybe not.

>>both are invalid

thinking21

10-1

Thinking

Some A are B.

Some B are C.

Therefore some A are C.

Some cars are Toyotas.

Some Toyotas are trucks.

Therefore some cars are trucks.

thinking22

10-1

Thinking
  • Belief Perseverance
    • clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
    • Once we form belief, we ignore contrary evidence
    • Once beliefs form and get justified, it takes more compelling evidence to change them than it did to create them
    • Ex p 396 Mark Lepper firefighters as cautious or risk taker pers type
artificial intelligence

10-1

Artificial Intelligence
  • “Mary saw a bicycle in the store window. She wanted it.”
  • We draw from vast amts of knowledge and schemas that have nothing to do w/ syntax. We know 100 mil things about the world.
  • Does a computer know what Mary wants?
  • Artificial Intelligencedesigning and programming computer systems
      • to do intelligent things
      • to simulate human thought processes
        • intuitive reasoning
        • learning
        • understanding language
  • Check out: http://www.cyc.org
artificial intelligence1

10-1

Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer Neural Networks
    • computer circuits that mimic the brain’s interconnected neural cells
    • performing tasks
      • learning to recognize visual patterns
      • learning to recognize smells
language

10-2

Language
  • Language Structure
  • phonemes – smallest distinctive sound unit of a language
  • a set of basic sounds
  • ex. b, a, t, ch, k, s
  • English language has about 40
  • consonant phonemes carry more info than vowel phonemes
  • <<The treth of thes statement shed be evedent frem thes bref demenstrtretien.>>
  • people who grow up learning one set of phonemes usually have difficulty pronouncing phonemes from other languages
  • ex. th sound tough for a German, says “dis” for this
  • Ich (German for I) is tough for native Eng spkrs
language1

10-2

Language
  • Chat- How many phonemes?
  • 3 – CH A T
  • morpheme- the smallest unit of language that carries meaning
  • usually a combo of 2 or more phonemes
  • however, some phonemes are also morphemes
  • ex. I
  • some morphemes are words like bat, but prefixes and suffixes are also morphemes
  • —bat(s)- 2 morphemes
  • Undesirables- How many morphemes?
  • 4- UN DESIR ABLE S
language2

10-2

Language

grammar- system of rules that enables us to communicate w/ and understand others

–    made up of syntax and semantics

semantics – the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words and sentences

ex. adding –ed to a verb makes it past tense

syntax – rules for ordering words into sentences

ex. adj. Come before nouns

-not true in Spanish (white house v casa blanca)

10 2 language

10-2

10-2 Language
  • 9.  Trace the course of language acquisition from the babbling stage through language explosion stage.
  • 10.  Explain how the nature-nurture debate is illustrated in the various theories of language development.
language development

10-2

Language Development
  • U know apx 80k words
  • After age 1 – learn avg of 13/ day and 5k/ yr
  • Most parents struggle stating rules of syntax but before children can add 2+2, they’re creating grammatically correct sentences
  • Preschoolers comprehend & speak w/ a facility that puts college students trying to learn for lang to shame
  • Children know that sounds comm meaning and thus move from babbling to one word stage
language development1

10-2

Language Development
  • Acquiring Language
  • infants are born w/ no language
  • by 4 months can understand cause and effect and discriminate speech sounds

> marks beginning of the babbling stage

  • when babies utter nonsense sounds unrelated to the language of their parents -ex. ah-goo, da-da-da-da-da
  • not an imitation of adult speech
  • you can’t discern nationality from babbling and deaf children also babble
  • before 10 months babies can make a wide variety of phonemes, they begin to lose this ability at this point
  • by 10 months babbling has changed enough to guess nationality
language3

10-2

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Percentage able

to discriminate

Hindi t’s

Hindi-

speaking

adults

6-8

months

8-10

months

10-12

months

English-

speaking

adults

Infants from English-speaking homes

Language
  • We are all born to recognize speech sounds from all the world’s languages
language4

10-2

Language
  • One-Word Stage (12 mos)
language5

10-2

Language
  • Two-Word Stage
    • beginning about age 2
    • the stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statements
  • Also Called: Telegraphic Speech
    • child speaks like a telegram-–“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words
language6

10-2

Summary of Language Development

Month

(approximate)

Stage

Babbles many speech sounds.

4

Babbling reveals households

language.

10

12

One-word stage.

24

Two-word, telegraphic speech.

24+

Language develops rapidly into

complete sentences.

Language

*18 mo – go from 1 new word/ wk to 1/ day

language7

10-2

Language
  • Genes design the mechanisms for a language, and experience activates them as it modifies the brain
language8

10-2

Percentage

correct on

grammar

test

100

90

80

70

60

50

Native

3-7

8-10

11-15

17-39

Age at school

Language
  • New language learning gets harder with age
explaining language development

10-2

Explaining Language Development
  • Nature v. Nurture Debate resurfaces
  • Chomsky v. Skinner
  • BF Skinner (behaviorist-Nurture)-explained lang dev w/ learning principles

1. Association-sight of things w/ sound

2. Imitation/ Modeling/ Observational Learning-of words spoken by others

3. Reinforcement-success, smiles & hugs

language9

10-2

Language
  • Noam Chomsky (Nativist Theory)—disagrees
  • Believes children do learn from environment <<BUT>>
  • They acquire untaught words & grammar too quickly to be explained solely by learning.
  • Stated Skinner failed to exp how kids learn syntax w/o having been taught grammar

>>children generate unique, complex sentences that they’ve never heard

>>idea of L.A.D. – Language Acquisition Device and Critical Period

>>principles of language are in our genes

>>Lenneberg

>>Overregularization/ Overgeneralization of Grammar supports idea of universal grammar/ language (Chomsky)

ie. He “holded” the candy.

language10

10-2

Language
  • 11.  Discuss Whorf’s linguistic determinism hypothesis and the relationship between thought and language.
  • 12.  Describe the research on animal intelligence and communication and discuss the controversy over whether animals have language.
thinking language

10-2

Thinking & Language

Linguistic Determinism (Linguistic Relativism)

  • Whorf”s hypothesis that language determines the way we think
  • Hopi no past tense (Whorf thought they couldn’t conceptualize past)
  • Eng v Jap (Eng-lots of self-focused vocab, Jap-more vocab for interpersonal relations)-bilinguals report different sense of self depending on what language they’re using
  • Univ of Waterloo Study (2002) asked China-born bilingual students to desc self in Chinese and English
  • In English-self desc mostly positive self statements
  • In Chinese-equal positive and negative self-statements (balance)

>>lang shaped how they thought about themselves

language11

10-2

Language
  • The interplay of thought and language
animal thinking and language

10-2

Animal Thinking and Language
  • Animals communicate
  • Does their communication = language?
  • Aristotle thought lone honeybee led others to honey source
  • 1901-German rsrchr trapped lone bee when it returned to hive; others still flew straight to honey
  • Karl von Frisch (1950) won Nobel Prize for experiment showing that explorer bee communicated honey location through a dance
animal thinking and language1

10-2

Direction of

nectar source

Animal Thinking and Language
  • The straight-line part of the dance points in the direction of a nectar source, relative to the sun
  • Duration of dance indicates distance
  • Dance signals # of landmarks passed in route

>>bees do communicate but not w/ complexity of humans

animal thinking and language2

10-2

Animal Thinking and Language
  • Do animals think?
  • Monkeys display object permanence
  • Rsrchrs found 39 local customs related to chimp tool use, grooming, courtship
  • Tool development and use shows that chimps can solve problems shaped by reinforcement
  • Chimps display insight

>>Wolfgang Kohler(1925) exp withSultan (p413)

  • Animals do not showTheory of Mind(p 414 & p151)
animal thinking and language3

10-2

Animal Thinking and Language
  • Chimps are our closest genetic relative
  • 1969 Allen & Beatrix Gardner teach chimp Washoe sign language (learns 132 signs)

>>generated scientific & public interest in animal language

animal thinking and language4

10-2

Animal Thinking and Language
  • Human Lang may’ve evolved from GesturedCommunication
animal thinking and language5

10-2

Animal Thinking and Language
  • Is this really language?
animal thinking and language6

10-2

Animal Thinking and Language
  • Critics: It’s just operant behavior.
  • Chimp uses “you tickle” and “tickle you” interchangeably

>>chimps do not develop language (syntax)

  • Perceptual sets at work in trainers’ wishful thinking in interpreting chimp signs as language

>>Washoe signing water bird is just separately naming water and bird