Towards The Best Management of Construction Waste,by Building the CWMS(Construction Waste Management System) Dept. of Energy and Environment System Eng., Graduate School of Fukuoka Univ. Shintaro MATSUDA
SELF-INTRODUCTION Specialty： Solid Waste Management As the master thesis, in order to manifest the condition of a municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfill site, for reuse closed landfill sites, I investigated inside wastes at the actual MSW landfill, by boring tests. After this study, my concern is moving to consider solid wastes management from a broad perspective. ↓ I got especially interested in the problem of “construction waste”.
BACKGROUND ON THE CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT Illegal dumping and improper disposal of construction wastes are the keen issue in Japan. ◆ “Construction wastes” is generated about 76 million tons per year. ◆ More than 90% of the total quantity on illegal dumping is originated from“construction wastes”. The illegal dumping would drop the confidence of construction industry. ↓ Therefore, it is the prime task for the construction industry to ensure a confidence and a transparency on solid waste management. Furthermore, in the near future, generation of construction wastes will increase by the demolition of buildings, built in the age of the rapid economic growth in Japan.
MY RESEARCH WORK for “prevention of illegal dumping” and “promotion of proper construction waste disposal” We build the practical system： “CWMS (Construction Waste Management System)” based on “characteristics of construction waste” and “present system of the waste management”
The characteristic of construction wastes
1. Characteristics of a generation site ・ the site moves for a short period ・ an amount of generation wastes is large ・ wastes of various kinds are generated Figure: a generation site (demolition site)
2. The waste without packing Construction wastes, usually, loading directly on a vehicle without packing. Therefore, it is difficult for labeling and/or tracking of wastes. Figure: the vehicle loaded wastes without packing
3. Difficulty of weight control Generator cannot measure the accurate weight at a generation site where truck scale (weigh bridge) is seldom installed. Figure: The track scale at a disposal facility
recycling transporter A transporter B transporter C transporter D treatment firm A treatment firm B transporter E transporter F disposal firm A disposal firm B disposal firm C disposal firm D 4. Complicated cooperation between the stakeholders constructor (generator) There is a lot of pattern of the disposal cooperation between the stakeholders.
The present waste control and its problems
PRESENT WASTE MANAGEMENT The construction waste is controlled by two types of manifest system. ◆ paper-based manifest (see figure) ◆ electronic manifest Figure: paper-based manifest (multi-duplicated manifest slip)
waste REPORT REPORT REPORT REPORT REPORT PRESENT WASTE MANAGEMENT According to the Waste Disposal Law, generators have to issue a manifest for every vehicle and/or every kind of waste since 1998. Transporter Constructor (Generator) Treatment / Disposal (T/D) firm treatment facility construction site disposal facility manifest ISSUE TRANSPORT COMPLETION TREATMENT COMPLETION DISPOSAL COMPLETION This is a simple system, similarly to a “home-delivery service”.
PRESENT WASTE MANAGEMENT A “paper-based manifest” is the mainstream now. However there is a problem that unauthorized uses take place easily. ↓ It seems that it shifts to the “electronic manifest” in the near future.
“ELECTRONIC MANIFEST” 【GOOD POINT】 ◆prevention of unauthorized uses ◆input of an information is easy ◆storage and collection of a manifest slip is unnecessary 【WEAK POINT】 ◆a computer network is necessary ◆all the stakeholders must participate For these weak points, a diffusion rate is only about 2% after 7 years operation. ↓ Since construction industry issues a lot of manifest slips, it was aimed to adopt the “electronic manifest” and trial has started. ↓ However, unsolved problems still remain in the manifest system.
UNSOLVED PROBLEMS ① Different from a “home-delivery service”, 【Home-delivery service】 A final recipient check the contents of a package when it arrives. 【Manifest System】 A T/D firm usually does not check the contents of wastes transported. It means that they would not compare the wastes and the manifest slip. A T/D firm does not confirm whether the waste properly arrives or not.
UNSOLVED PROBLEMS ② In the case of using an “electronic manifest system”, ◆ Vehicle drivers cannot participate in the system. Usually, vehicle drivers are not equipped with any handheld terminal. ◆ Time and spatial lag occurs between the flow of wastes and the flow of a manifest Information of a manifest cannot be communicated accurately at the points, such as a generator, a vehicle driver, a supervisor of T/D firms and so on. ex) constructor to vehicle driver vehicle driver to supervisor of disposal firm
THE “CWMS” SYSTEM Figure: Overview of the system
THE BEST MANAGEMENT BY “CWMS” The “CWMS” integrated following elements strongly. 【Control Center – Server Host】 ① Full participation participation of all the stakeholders who concerning waste disposal ② Connection with the Internet sharing and integration of wastes information between stakeholders 【In-vehicle Terminal】 ③ Weight control control of the weight variation by using in-vehicle weight-meter ④ Waste tracking route management of transport by using GPS
DEVELOPMENT OF IN-VEHICLE TERMINAL The authors develop “in-vehicle terminal:Dump Catcher” as an information hub on a transport vehicle. Basically, driver’s operation is completed only by two button pushing. Various information (manifest information etc.) is exchanged for stakeholders. information select button transport start / end button Wireless communication module (LAN & packet) • Memory unit • GPS position data • Waste information • Weight data etc. data processing unit GPS module Display Interface for vehicle condition Collected information is displayed and communicated to drivers. Figure: Composition of “Dump Catcher”
OPERATION FLOW Generation Site Disposal Facility ■ Constructor measurement of waste weight (b) ①REGISTRATION of MANIFEST ■ Transporter (Driver) push push waste loading waste unloading transport ②confirmation ③START ④END ■ Treatment /Disposal (T/D) firm measurement of waste weight (a) ⑤confirmation ⑥RECEIPT
OPERATION FLOW (at a generation site) Issue a manifest ① A manifest data is transmitted to a vehicle driver at the time of registration. After waste loading, the weight of load is measured when the truck bed is inclined. ② The driver confirms the manifest displayed on “Dump Catcher”. ③ The driver pushes “the transport start button” at the time of transport start. After completion of both ①registration and ③button push, the manifest would be issued. ■ Constructor ①REGISTRATION ■ Transporter (Driver) push waste loading ②confirmation ③START ■ Treatment /Disposal (T/D) firm measurement of waste weight (a)
OPERATION FLOW (at a disposal facility) Report of transport completion ④ The manifest data is transmitted to a supervisor of disposal at the same time of pushing “the transport end button” by a vehicle driver. A weight of wastes is measured during a waste unloading. ⑤ The supervisor confirms the manifest, and “a track” and “a weight variation” between the waste transport. ⑥ After confirmation, the supervisor carries out receipt procedure and reports completion of transport. By these procedures, information would be delivered correctly between the stakeholders, through the “CWMS control center”. ■ Constructor measurement of waste weight (b) ■ Transporter (Driver) push waste unloading transport ④END ■ T/D firm ⑤confirmation ⑥RECEIPT
WASTE TRACKING A waste tracking data save with manifest data. All the stakeholders can confirms the tracking data on a map by using GIS. Figure: display example of a waste tracking
CONCLUSION For the prevention of illegal dumping and the promotion of proper disposal, the authors built the new management system: CWMS, which strongly combined in-vehicle terminal: Dump Catcher. The CWMS could achieve the strict control of construction wastes without time and spatial lag, with tight connection between all the stakeholders. The concept of CWMS has a great advantage of scale. The CWMS would make a great contribution for the proper waste management, if the government, a construction industry or other similar groups would adopt the CWMS as a standard management system.
FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION • Introduction of a design concept of fail-safe on operation by using in-vehicle terminal • Expanding a target of management to all the construction by-product.