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Potential Applicability of Intelligent P&S in Production & Logistics. Prof. dr. Tim Grant Atos Origin Nederland / University of Pretoria, RSA Tim.Grant@atosorigin.com / tgrant@cs.up.ac.za. Overview. Goal:

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potential applicability of intelligent p s in production logistics

Potential Applicability of Intelligent P&S in Production & Logistics

Prof. dr. Tim Grant

Atos Origin Nederland / University of Pretoria, RSA

Tim.Grant@atosorigin.com / tgrant@cs.up.ac.za

PLANET Bilbao I-day

overview
Overview
  • Goal:
    • To identify industrial sectors & activities that can benefit from intelligent planning & scheduling
  • Structure:
    • Introduction
    • What is IP&S
    • Industrial sectors & activities
    • IP&S features & benefits
    • Key case studies in production & logistics
    • IP&S products & services

PLANET Bilbao I-day

introducing myself
Introducing myself
  • Qualifications:
    • BSc Aeronautical Engineering, Univ. Bristol, UK
    • Chartered Engineer, UK
    • PhD Artificial Intelligence, Univ. Maastricht, NL
  • Experience:
    • 1966-87: Royal Air Force officer
      • UK & Singapore: Aircraft maintenance & logistics
    • 1987-date: Principal Consultant, Atos Origin
      • NL: Aerospace, defence, motorway traffic control
    • 2001-date: Professor Extraordinary, Univ. Pretoria
      • RSA: Advanced ICT in Planning & Control

PLANET Bilbao I-day

introducing atos origin
Introducing Atos Origin

http://www.atosorigin.com\

  • Atos Origin:
    • Leading European IT services supplier:
      • 28K staff worldwide (50K from 1 Jan 04)
      • 50% Dutch (Origin), 50% French (Atos)
      • Financially stable
    • Technical Automation (TA) business unit:
      • Co-creating next-generation of intelligent, software-intensive systems & products together with our clients
      • In Utrecht (NL):
        • Aerospace, Defence, Road & Rail Traffic, Telecoms
      • In Veldhoven (NL):
        • Consumer & industrial electronics, Semiconductors, Medical equipment, Document processing

PLANET Bilbao I-day

introducing university of pretoria
Introducing University of Pretoria
  • University of Pretoria (“Tukkies”):
    • Front-rank South African university
    • Computer Science:
      • Java, .NET, AI
      • Swarm intelligence
      • Information & computer security
      • Risk management
  • My research interests:
    • Decentralised planning & control
    • Generation of Standard Operating Procedures
    • Mixed-initiative, collaborative planning
    • Dynamic risk management

http://www.cs.up.ac.za\

PLANET Bilbao I-day

what is ip s 1

Machining

Raw materials

Product

Planning &

Scheduling

Monitoring

& Control

Schedule

Current state & past experience

Sensor data

Instructions

What is IP&S (1)

Need

Requirements

Specification

Design

Design

Production

Products

Usage

Obsolete products

Decommission

PLANET Bilbao I-day

what is ip s 2

Planning &

Scheduling

Monitoring

& Control

Schedule

Current state & past experience

Sensor data

Instructions

Loading, driving & unloading

Package at A

Package at B

What is IP&S (2)

Transportation

& logistics

PLANET Bilbao I-day

what is ip s 3

Domain knowledge

(in human planner’s head)

Domain

Planning &

Scheduling

Monitoring

& Control

Schedule

Current state & past experience

What is IP&S (3)

Generalising:

Goals / objectives

+ domain model

Sensor data

Instructions

Action

Initial state

Goal state

PLANET Bilbao I-day

what is ip s 4
Term:

Domain

Action

Changing domain

Planning

Defining valid action-sequence

Scheduling

Allocate resources & time to actions

Example:

Factory / fleet of trucks

Machining / loading & driving

Changes product / truck

Constructing recipe / route

Make plan (action-sequence) for machining / driving

Resource allocation

Allocate machines & times / trucks+drivers & times

What is IP&S (4)

PLANET Bilbao I-day

industrial sectors activities 1
Industrial sectors & activities (1)
  • Potential industrial sectors:
    • Industry:
      • Construction & civil engineering
      • Capital & household goods
      • Automotive, rail, shipping
      • Aerospace
      • Machine tools & equipment
    • Logistics & transportation
    • Utilities (electricity, water, gas)
    • Telecommunications
    • Agriculture
    • Finance & banking
    • Medical
    • Other services

PLANET Bilbao I-day

industrial sectors activities 2
Industrial sectors & activities (2)
  • Potential activities:
    • In complex processes:
      • Wherever there are human planners:
        • Industrial
          • E.g. production, logistics, & transportation
        • Military & emergency services
          • Police, fire-fighting, ambulance
    • In products with autonomous capabilities:
      • Lifts / elevators
      • Driverless trains
      • Spacecraft
      • Unmanned air vehicles
      • Mobile robots

PLANET Bilbao I-day

ip s features benefits 1

Current methods:

Action-sequence

Schedule

Planning

Scheduling

  • Done manually (+ office software)
  • No tools
  • Very time-consuming & inflexible
  • Supported by products (eg ARTEMIS, MS-Project)
  • Based on PERT / CPA algorithms (1950s technology)
  • Slow & inflexible

IP&S methods:

Input

Action-sequence

Schedule

Planning

Scheduling

Planning &

Scheduling

Monitoring

& Control

Output

  • Supported by tools (eg PRODIGY)
  • Based on 1990s/2000s technology
  • Fast & flexible
  • Supported by products (eg ILOG Scheduler)
  • Based on CSP algorithms (1990s technology)
  • Fast & flexible

Schedule

Current state & past experience

IP&S features & benefits (1)

PLANET Bilbao I-day

ip s features benefits 2

P&S knowledge

Domain knowledge

(on factory floor or in control room)

IP&S features & benefits (2)

Why planners have grey hair:

Age (years)

40

30

20

Common-sense knowledge

10

PLANET Bilbao I-day

ip s features benefits 3
IP&S features & benefits (3)
  • Where does benefit come from?
    • Capturing knowledge in planner’s head
    • Applying it to support human planner:
      • Automate boring routine problems
      • Free human planner to work on difficult problems:
        • Where creativity & ingenuity needed
      • Remind human planner of domain constraints:
        • So human planner avoids errors
  • Conventional software:
    • Either “hard-codes” industry-specific knowledge:
      • Inflexible & very expensive (limited market)
    • Or unable to capture or apply domain knowledge:
      • Cheaper, but cannot give intelligent support

PLANET Bilbao I-day

ip s features benefits 4
IP&S features & benefits (4)
  • IP&S approach:
    • Capture, apply & maintain domain knowledge:
      • Knowledge engineering tool
      • Can be interfaced to related software, e.g. CADCAM
      • N.B. Significant effort needed = the price you pay for the gains in the planning & scheduling processes
    • Planning:
      • Provide support for human planner:
        • “Mixed-initiative” planning tool
        • 1990s/2000s technology
    • Scheduling:
      • Replace 1950s algorithm with 1990s technology:
        • CSP-based scheduling tool / engine

PLANET Bilbao I-day

ip s features benefits 5
IP&S features & benefits (5)
  • Expected benefits:
    • Planning:
      • Increased productivity of human planner
      • Better quality plans:
        • Makes “what-if” possible
        • More consistent plans
    • Scheduling:
      • Faster scheduling process:
        • Runs inside production cycle
        • Less idle time & overtime
      • Better-quality schedules:
        • More “what-if” within same time
        • More robust schedules

PLANET Bilbao I-day

key case studies 1
Key case studies (1)
  • Production (1):
    • Aircraft assembly:
      • 570 tasks, 17 resources
      • Conventional method:
        • ARTEMIS
        • 20 hours to generate schedule
      • IP&S method:
        • Replace ARTEMIS by CSP
        • 30 mins to generate optimum schedule
        • 10 to 15% shorter makespan
      • Saving:
        • 4 to 6 days floor-time per aircraft
        • US$ 0.2 to 1 million per day

PLANET Bilbao I-day

key case studies 2
Key case studies (2)
  • Production (2):
    • Submarine construction:
      • 1.4 million tasks per boat
      • Conventional method:
        • ARTEMIS
        • 6 weeks to generate schedule
        • Highly non-uniform profiles
      • IP&S method:
        • Replace ARTEMIS by CSP
        • 1 day to generate schedule
        • More uniform profiles
      • Savings:
        • 30% reduction in overtime & sub-contracting

PLANET Bilbao I-day

key case studies 21
Key case studies (2)
  • Logistics:
    • Military build-up to 1991 Gulf War:
      • Conventional method:
        • Hundreds of human planners
        • Months to generate plans/schedules
      • IP&S method:
        • Aid planners with O-PLAN2
      • Savings:
        • Faster logistics build-up
        • Fewer airlift missions
        • Financial pay-back >> all US Government AI research:
          • From 1956
          • Not just IP&S research – all AI research

PLANET Bilbao I-day

ip s products services 1
IP&S products & services (1)
  • List of European products on following slides:
    • Commercial vs. academic products
    • Planning vs. scheduling products
  • Sources:
    • PLANET & UK PlanSIG web-sites
  • Conclusions:
    • No commercial planning product
    • Schedulers:
      • Twice as many commercial as academic
    • Academic focus:
      • More than twice as many planners as schedulers

PLANET Bilbao I-day

ip s products services 2
Product

CHIP V5

ILOG Solver

ILOG Scheduler

CPLEX

Evolver/Blue Kaizen - optimisation

iBundler

iAuctionMaker

Constraint optimisation toolkit

XpressMP – optimization suite

Electrical power generation

INORDA - APS for production

JOBWISE - APS for manpower

Supplier

Cosytec (FR)

ILOG (FR)

ILOG (FR)

ILOG (FR)

MASA (FR)

iSOCO (E)

iSOCO (E)

BT (UK)

Dash Optimization (UK/US)

Power Optimisation (UK)

Workplace Systems (UK)

Workplace Systems (UK)

IP&S products & services (2)

Commercial scheduling products (1):

PLANET Bilbao I-day

ip s products services 3
Product

HARMONY – shift scheduling

PEARL

SHORTREC – routing & scheduling

ModelEnterprise – plant design

SERVICEPower scheduler

Timetabling software

Scheduling software

DAYSY – flight scheduling

Prescient5 – production scheduling

TASKFORCE – workforce scheduler

Ximes

PDC Staffplan

Supplier

ORTEC (NL/US)

ORTEC (NL/US)

ORTEC (NL/US)

Process Systems Enterprise (UK)

ServicePower (UK)

Lantiv (?)

COMSEC (?)

SEMA Group (UK/FR)

Prescient (?)

APSolve (UK)

XIMES (AU)

PDC (DK)

IP&S products & services (3)

Commercial scheduling products (2):

PLANET Bilbao I-day

ip s products services 4
Product

ChariTime – dynamic appointment

ConBATT – timetabling

INTERDIP – nurse scheduling

WISPRO

CSP-Lab & CS-Lib

PAVE – patient scheduling

ECOPT – vehicle & crew scheduling

LiSA – scheduling algorithms

TOSCA – factory scheduling (job-shop)

Supplier

U. Humboldt (GE)

U. Humboldt (GE)

U. Munich (GE)

GMD First (GE)

U. Strathclyde (UK)

Demokritos (GR)

Erasmus (?)

U. Magdeburg (GE)

U. Edinburgh (UK)

IP&S products & services (4)

Academic scheduling products:

PLANET Bilbao I-day

ip s products services 5
Product

IxTET

IPP

Fast-Forward

GRT & MO-GRT

DDPLAN

Model-Based Planner (MBP)

Prodigy

IMPLAN

MACHINE – manufacturing

TRP-Planner – temporal planning

MIME – mixed-initiative modeller & planner

University/Institute

LAAS-CNRS (FR)

U. Freiburg (GE)

U. Freiburg (GE)

UoM (GR)

U. Perugia (IT)

IRST (IT)

UC3M (E)

U. Humboldt (GE)

UGR (E)

U. Piraeus (GR)

Mid Sweden U. (SE)

IP&S products & services (5)

Academic planning products (1):

PLANET Bilbao I-day

ip s products services 6
Product

STAN

TIM – domain analysis tool

O-PLAN

PLANFORM – planning environment

GIPO

CAPplan

INT-OP – operating procedure synthesis

MACTA – planning for interacting robots

Plan 95 – distributed planner

CHARADE – interactive planning

I-Rescue –disaster relief planning

University/Institute

U. Durham (UK)

U. Durham (UK)

U. Edinburgh (UK)

U. Huddersfield (UK)

U. Huddersfield (UK)

U. Kaiserlautern (GE)

U. Salford (UK)

U. Salford (UK)

U. Uppsala (SE)

U. UGR (E)

U. Edinburgh (UK)

IP&S products & services (6)

Academic planning products (2):

PLANET Bilbao I-day