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Pipe Dreams and Trading Schemes

Pipe Dreams and Trading Schemes

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Pipe Dreams and Trading Schemes

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  1. Pipe Dreams and Trading Schemes A study of the decorations on tobacco pipes and trading patterns at Cocumscussoc

  2. A History of Colonial Pipes • Tobacco smoking first became popular in England around the 1570s • Spanish were familiar almost 100 years before, with from natives in South American colonies

  3. Distribution of Pipes • The clay tobacco pipe industry developed in many local areas throughout England and the Netherlands around the early part of the 17th century • Most pipes were distributed locally • Port towns and cities allowed for overseas trading, bringing clay pipes to the North American colonies.

  4. Early pipes have a short stem with a large bore diameter and a small "acorn" shaped, rouletted bowl that angled away from the smoker. • Throughout the 17th century, stems became longer, bore sizes smaller and bowl sizes larger. • By the early 18th century, pipes developed into a larger straight-sided form with no rouletting around the rim and the bowl perpendicular to the stem.

  5. Pipe Popularity • Clay pipes were extremely inexpensive, resulting in all social and economic classes owning and disposing of them • Clay pipes were typically broken and discarded within 1-2 years

  6. Dating Sites with Pipes • Clay tobacco pipes are excellent artifacts for dating colonial sites because they’ve undergone definitive stylistic changes over its history of production.

  7. Pipe Material • Pipes have been found made of • silver, brass, pewter, iron, and lead • But clay was the primary material pipes were made from until the end of the 19th century • White clay: kaolin

  8. Pipes at Cocumscussoc • Over 800 fragments • 131 decorated fragments • 42 decorated stem fragments • 89 decorated bowl or heel fragments

  9. Methods • Initial sort by unit and levels • Sort by pipe bowl fragments and pipe stem fragments • Sort by designed pieces

  10. Maker’s Marks • Identifying maker’s mark allows: • place of origin • the date range within which it was made • a basic time frame for when the pipe was deposited

  11. Two Main Categories of Makers Marks • Relief Marks -Form a raised mark on the pipe -Either stamped with a die or incorporated into the pipe mould • Incuse Marks -Form a negative impression on the pipe -Either stamped with a die or applied by a similar device across which the stem was rolled

  12. Two Main Categories of Makers Marks • Relief Marks -Form a raised mark on the pipe -Either stamped with a die or incorporated into the pipe mould • Incuse Marks -Form a negative impression on the pipe -Either stamped with a die or applied by a similar device across which the stem was rolled

  13. Exception to the Rule • The Chesapeake pipe bearing the initials DK - The pipemaker used a hand held tool to produce the rouletted initials and other decorative designs

  14. Time Ranges Derived from Makers Marks • First half of the 17th century: (true for English and Dutch pipes) -predominantly stamped on the heel • Second half of the 17th century: • makers marks are still found on the heel, but can also be found on the stems and backs of bowls • End of the 17th century to the third quarter of the 18th century: • -makers marks are most commonly seen in the form of either a moulded cartouche on the right or left side of the bowl, initials moulded into the sides of the heel/spur, or as an abbreviated mane stamped on the stem.

  15. Dutch vs. English Pipes • Dutch pipes in the later 17th century are distinguished from the English pipes not only by their bowl shape and the presence of rouletting around the rim, but also because pipemakers continued to mark their pipes on the heel, often using miniscule marks.

  16. “PE” • Incuse. Stamped on heel. • Mark identified as Philip Edwards of Bristol • (1649/50 - 1668-9)

  17. “WE” • Incuse. • Mark identified as William Evans, Bristol pipemaker. • William Evans I (1660-82); William Evans II (1667-82).

  18. “LE” • Incuse. • Mark identified as Bristol pipemaker Llewellin Evans (1661-86).

  19. “RT” • Incuse. • Mark attributed to Robert Tippett II, Bristol pipemaker (1678-1713)

  20. “W” - base of heel

  21. “T-” - side of bowl

  22. “TD” - side of bowl

  23. “CD” - on heel

  24. “W” - side of heel

  25. “B”

  26. “EB”Relief.Mark attributed to Edward Bird, Dutch pipemaker (produced 1630-1665)

  27. “W-” - side of bowl

  28. “T-” - side of bowl

  29. “T” - side of bowl

  30. “L” - side of bowl

  31. “-VE” - side of bowl

  32. Influence of Egyptian Sun • The Egyptian sun god motif of a ball upon wings inspired many European artwork • Found and evolved upon many sculptures, artwork, and gravestones • “T-[W?]” maker unidentified - probably later period

  33. Pipe Decorations • Pipe decorations are not as readily identifiable to makers and locations as maker’s marks • Yet Cocumscussoc has a great many decorations, indicating an abundance of trade and wealth

  34. Heel Decoration • Many heel bases served as places for maker’s marks • However, this piece has a flower pattern on the heel • Oftentimes the Tudor rose was found here

  35. Roulette • Rouletting was one of the most common forms of decoration on both pipe bowls and stems • Has been found on fragments from 1600s-1900s • Less common post-18th century however

  36. Bowl Roulettes • Rouletting was most common along the rims of pipe bowls • Mostly incused like maker’s marks, rolled along the rim

  37. Stem Roulettes • The Roulette tool: Pipe maker’s usually used a rouletting tool to produce this effect, which was like an engraving wheel or cylinder • Produced repetitive decoration. • Examples of “mistakes” on stems

  38. Fleur de Lis • The Fleur-de-lys was originally named the “fleur-de-Louis”, after Louis VII, in 1147 A.D. • Evolved to “fleur-de-lys” which means, “flower of the lily”. • Incorporated often in coat-of-arms, a frequent pipe decoration, often placed in diamonds