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Chapters 11 & 14. Empty slide to keep flashcards in order. 1. Who is named the “ Father of Genetics ?” 2. Why did he use pea plants? . 1. Gregor Mendel 2. To study the inheritance of traits a nd they reproduced quickly. What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean?

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Chapters 11 14

1. Who is named the “Father of Genetics?”

2. Why did he use pea plants?


Chapters 11 14

1. Gregor Mendel

2. To study the inheritance of traits

and they reproduced quickly


Chapters 11 14

What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean?

What type of offspring results when you cross two pure “true” breedingparents with different traits?

What are the offspring of two parents called?


Chapters 11 14

1. Both alleles are either dominant or recessive

RR or rr

2. All hybrid (Rr) offspring result

3. F1 generation



Chapters 11 14

R parents self-pollinate? r

R

r

RR

Rr

Rr

rr


Chapters 11 14

What is parents self-pollinate? probability?

What is the probability of getting heads when you flip a penny?


Chapters 11 14

Probability parents self-pollinate? : The chance of something happening!

½ or 50%



Chapters 11 14

The higher the number of trials you perform, the more likely you are to get the expected outcome (probability).

½ heads, ½ tails



Chapters 11 14

If you toss a coin 6 times in a row, what is the probability it will land heads all 6 times?

½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½

= 1/64


Chapters 11 14

What is the “Principle of it will land heads all 6 times?Independent Assortment?”


Chapters 11 14

During gamete formation, it will land heads all 6 times?genes for different traits separate without influencing the other.


Chapters 11 14

Be able to define: it will land heads all 6 times?

Compete Dominance

Incomplete Dominance

Co-Dominance


Chapters 11 14

Complete Dominance it will land heads all 6 times?

The dominant trait (G) over shadows the recessive trait (g) and only the dominant trait shows up in the phenotype.

Incomplete Dominance

Neither trait is dominant over the other and a new trait is displayed.

Red flowers crossed with white flowers make pink flowers.

Co-Dominance

Both traits are equally displayed and neither is dominant over the other.

ABO blood types: A blood x B blood =

AB blood


Chapters 11 14


Chapters 11 14

Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type: it will land heads all 6 times?

AB has same genotype and phenotype


Chapters 11 14

What are it will land heads all 6 times?polygenic traits?


Chapters 11 14

What are it will land heads all 6 times?polygenic traits?

Traits that have a wide variety of color ranges such as eye colors, hair color, skin color.


Chapters 11 14

How many different gametes would you get from the following parent?

A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h


Chapters 11 14

How many different gametes would you get from the following parent?

A A B bC c D dE E F FG g H h

1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 1 x 1 x 2 x 2 =

32 gametes


Chapters 11 14

Know the steps of MEIOSIS I and II parent?and the formation of gametes (sex cells)!

Female

Male

1 Egg and 3 polar bodies are produced

4 Sperm are produced


Chapters 11 14

The chromatids pull apart during Meiosis I parent?I

The paired, homologous chromosomes come together during Meiosis I to make

Tetrads

Which cross over and share their genes

4 genetically different cells result at the end of Meiosis

Haploid =one set of chromosomes




Chapters 11 14

What is this called? parent?

What 4 things are shown from this picture?


Chapters 11 14

  • What is this called? parent?Karyotype

  • Shows:

  • Autosomes= all chromosomes except sex chromosomes # 1 - 22 chromosome pairs

  • Sex Chromosomes

  • (XX female or XY male) # 23 pair

  • Homologous Chromosomes = chromosomes that code for the same traits

  • Inherited Disorders (ex: Down’s, Turner’s, Kleinfelter’s, Super males)


Chapters 11 14

What is parent?non-disjunction?


Chapters 11 14

Non-disjunction parent?–When chromosome pairs don’t separate during Meiosis

Can involve all types of chromosomes (sex, autosomes, homologous)



Chapters 11 14

Down’s Syndrome parent?(Trisomy 21)

#21






Chapters 11 14

Who determines the sex of the offspring? pair?

Mother or Father

Why?

What is probability of getting a girl? A boy?


Chapters 11 14

Father pair?

determines sex of offspring

He provides either an X or a Y to pair up with the mother’s X to make a boy or girl

50% chance of Boy 50% chance of Girl


Chapters 11 14


Chapters 11 14

Normal Male pair?

Normal Female

Female with Trait

Carrier Female

Male with Trait

Carrier Male

Line = Marriage

Pedigree Chart = shows how a trait is passed from one generation to the next.

3 Generations


Chapters 11 14

Be able to describe the differences between: pair?

MeiosisandMitosis

Asexual andSexual Reproduction


Chapters 11 14

Know the pair?term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits?


Chapters 11 14

  • Sex-linked gene/trait pair?– Traits linked to sex chromosomes such as hemophilia or colorblindness

  • Only carried on X

  • Y doesn’t carry

  • traits.

Key:


Chapters 11 14

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: pair?

  • Allele

  • Gametes

  • Genes

  • Genetics

  • Karyotype

  • Pedigree

  • Probability

  • Punnett Square


Chapters 11 14

  • Allele pair?- Different forms of a gene

  • Gametes- Sex Cells (egg & sperm)

  • Gene- Part of a chromosome; codes for traits

  • Genetics- Study of how traits are passed generation to generation

  • Karyotype- Picture of all chromosomes matched up (looking for abnormal # of chromosomes)

  • Pedigree- Tool to figure out possible outcomes

  • Probability - Chance of something happening-

  • Punnett Square- Chart showing probability


Chapters 11 14

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: pair?

  • Dominant

  • Recessive

  • Genotype

  • Phenotype

  • Heterozygous

  • Homozygous

  • Trait

  • Homologous


Chapters 11 14

  • Dominant pair? – Gene whose effect masks the partner (recessive) trait

  • Recessive – Gene whose effect is masked by partner (dominant) trait

  • Genotype – Genetic makeup of organism

  • Phenotype – Trait expressed “physical” looks

  • Heterozygous – Pair of different alleles (Rr)

  • Homozygous – Pair of same kind of alleles (RR) (rr)

  • Trait – Inherited characteristic

  • Homologous – Pair of same kind of chromosomes


Chapters 11 14

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: pair?

  • Co-dominance

  • Incomplete dominance

  • Diploid

  • Haploid

  • Independent Assortment

  • Non-disjunction

  • Segregation


Chapters 11 14

  • Co-dominance pair? – Both alleles expressed EQUALLY

  • Incomplete dominance – Blending of traits

  • Diploid – Having 2 sets of chromosomes

  • Haploid – Having 1 set of chromosomes

  • Independent Assortment – Genes that separate have no effect on the other’s inheritance

  • Non-disjunction – When chromosomes don’t separate

  • Segregation – Separation of alleles


Chapters 11 14

Understand which is the pair?P, F1, F2 generations and how you get each.


Chapters 11 14

  • Know how to do the following types of crosses: pair?

  • Monohybrid Cross

  • Dihybrid Cross

  • Incomplete Dominance

  • Sex-linked Cross

  • Must show key, parents’ genotypes, possible gametes, Punnett square, genotypes and phenotypes of offspring