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Global Connections Unit 8 Part 2

Global Connections Unit 8 Part 2. The Industrial Revolution. Great Britain. What advantages allowed GB to be the first Industrial nation Natural resources (coal, iron ore etc..) Entrepreneurs (Capital) Transportation (rivers, navy merchant marine, eventually the rail road)

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Global Connections Unit 8 Part 2

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  1. Global ConnectionsUnit 8 Part 2 The Industrial Revolution

  2. Great Britain • What advantages allowed GB to be the first Industrial nation • Natural resources (coal, iron ore etc..) • Entrepreneurs (Capital) • Transportation (rivers, navy merchant marine, eventually the rail road) • Colonial empire (markets and resources) • Government support (tax, tariff, loans) • Labor force (better diet meant a healthier and larger population)

  3. The Agricultural Revolution • New farming methods helped to increase crop yield • Jethro Tull: The seed drill • Charles Townsend: Began using the turnip to replenish the soil and feed livestock (more livestock = more food) • Robert Bakewell: new methods of animal breeding produced more and better animals and more milk and meat

  4. Revolution in the textile industry • Shift from the domestic system to the factory system (power source?) • New machinery • 1760’s James Hargreaves: The spinning jenny • Richard Arkwright: The Water frame • 1793 Eli Whitney: The cotton gin • Henry Cort: Puddling

  5. Steam power • In the 1760’s James Watt perfected Thomas Newcomen’s steam engine to make it safer and more efficient • Applications • 1776 first practical application pumping water out of mines • George Stephenson: The Rocket (steam locomotive) • Robert Fulton: The Cleremont (steamboat)

  6. Effects of Industrialization • Negative (new urban environment created many new problems) • Over crowding, unsanitary, unsafe, lack of hospitals, fire and police departments • Dangerous working conditions and low wages • Women and children join the workforce • Positive (long term) • Horizons widened and opportunities increased

  7. Radical solutions • French Utopian socialism: Economic planning, the government should organize the economy and not “destructive” competition. Also the state should own all property • Charles Fourier (1772-1837): Utopian communities of 1620 people living on plots of 5000 acres (agriculture and industry)

  8. Marxian socialism • 1848 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published “The Communist Manifesto” • The poor or “proletariat” should help themselves by revolting against those who are exploiting them and seizing control of the means of production • “Workers of the world unite” • Predicted England would be first (most ind.) happened in Russia ironically • “Religion is the opiate of the masses” • Dictatorship of the proletariat

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