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Global Connections Unit 8 Part 2

Global Connections Unit 8 Part 2

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Global Connections Unit 8 Part 2

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  1. Global ConnectionsUnit 8 Part 2 The Industrial Revolution

  2. Great Britain • What advantages allowed GB to be the first Industrial nation • Natural resources (coal, iron ore etc..) • Entrepreneurs (Capital) • Transportation (rivers, navy merchant marine, eventually the rail road) • Colonial empire (markets and resources) • Government support (tax, tariff, loans) • Labor force (better diet meant a healthier and larger population)

  3. The Agricultural Revolution • New farming methods helped to increase crop yield • Jethro Tull: The seed drill • Charles Townsend: Began using the turnip to replenish the soil and feed livestock (more livestock = more food) • Robert Bakewell: new methods of animal breeding produced more and better animals and more milk and meat

  4. Revolution in the textile industry • Shift from the domestic system to the factory system (power source?) • New machinery • 1760’s James Hargreaves: The spinning jenny • Richard Arkwright: The Water frame • 1793 Eli Whitney: The cotton gin • Henry Cort: Puddling

  5. Steam power • In the 1760’s James Watt perfected Thomas Newcomen’s steam engine to make it safer and more efficient • Applications • 1776 first practical application pumping water out of mines • George Stephenson: The Rocket (steam locomotive) • Robert Fulton: The Cleremont (steamboat)

  6. Effects of Industrialization • Negative (new urban environment created many new problems) • Over crowding, unsanitary, unsafe, lack of hospitals, fire and police departments • Dangerous working conditions and low wages • Women and children join the workforce • Positive (long term) • Horizons widened and opportunities increased

  7. Radical solutions • French Utopian socialism: Economic planning, the government should organize the economy and not “destructive” competition. Also the state should own all property • Charles Fourier (1772-1837): Utopian communities of 1620 people living on plots of 5000 acres (agriculture and industry)

  8. Marxian socialism • 1848 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published “The Communist Manifesto” • The poor or “proletariat” should help themselves by revolting against those who are exploiting them and seizing control of the means of production • “Workers of the world unite” • Predicted England would be first (most ind.) happened in Russia ironically • “Religion is the opiate of the masses” • Dictatorship of the proletariat