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BIO55: Population Genetics and Evolution. I. What is Evolution?. I. What is Evolution?. A. Definitions "descent with modification". I. What is Evolution?. A. Definitions 1. Darwin - "descent with modification" 2. Ridley - "change in a lineage of populations between generations"

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Bio55 population genetics and evolution

I. What is Evolution?

A. Definitions

"descent with modification"


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

I. What is Evolution?

A. Definitions

1. Darwin - "descent with modification"

2. Ridley - "change in a lineage of populations between generations"

3. Futuyma - "a change in the properties of populations of organisms, or groups of such populations, over generations"

4. Freeman and Herron - “changes in allele frequencies over time"


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

I. What is Evolution?

A. Definitions

B. Key Elements

1. Populations evolve – individuals develop.


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

I. What is Evolution?

A. Definitions

B. Key Elements

1. Populations evolve – individuals develop.

2. - Evolution is an observable phenomenon:

heritable change in a population over generations. This may be observed at the genetic level, in the genetic structure of the population, or may also be reflected in the physiological, morphological, or behavioral traits affected by this genetic change. We might term this "Lineage Evolution".


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

I. What is Evolution?

A. Definitions

B. Key Elements

1. Populations evolve – individuals develop.

2. - Evolution is an observable phenomenon:

heritable change in a population over generations. This may be observed at the genetic level, in the genetic structure of the population, or may also be reflected in the physiological, morphological, or behavioral traits affected by this genetic change. We might term this "Lineage Evolution".

3. - with known, observable causes:

the genetic structure of a population changes as a function of selection, drift, mutation, migration, and non-random mating.


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

I. What is Evolution?

A. Definitions

B. Key Elements

4. - and known, observable results:

As the genetic structure of a population changes over generations, it can become different (diverge) from other populations. These differences may mean that the populations can no longer breed, and they become biologically distinct entities - different species. We term this "Radiational Evolution".


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

(Mayr, E. 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought)

At one time, there were no scientists, theologians, or historians. There were just philosophers that studied everything, using one way of thinking. That has changed, as we will see....


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

A. Early Greeks

Pantheon of meddlesome gods that controlled every aspect of nature and human experience; even took humans for mating (produced the heroes).

Prometheus fashions humans out of earth and water, and Athena gives humankind a soul


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

A. Early Greeks

B. 2nd Greek School

1. Hippocrates (450-377 bc)

“I swear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfill according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant…”


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

A. Early Greeks

B. 2nd Greek School

1. Hippocrates (450-377 bc)

- Valued an empirical approach… “look and see” rather than a purely philosophical approach to knowledge.

- Believed in use and disuse and inheritance of acquired traits; so accepted change within a "family".

- Close to an evolutionary approach


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

A. Early Greeks

B. 2nd Greek School

1. Hippocrates (450-377 bc)

2. Plato (427-347 bc)


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

  • A. Early Greeks

  • B. 2nd Greek School

  • 1. Hippocrates (450-377 bc)

  • 2. Plato (427-347 bc)

  • trained in Pythagorean School; pure philosopher

  • UNIVERSAL PHILOSOPHY (four dogmas)


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

  • A. Early Greeks

  • B. 2nd Greek School

  • 1. Hippocrates (450-377 bc)

  • 2. Plato (427-347 bc)

  • trained in Pythagorean School; pure philosopher

  • UNIVERSAL PHILOSOPHY (four dogmas)

  • Essentialism (unchanging eidos)

  • Plenitude (harmony)

  • Demi-Urge (creative force)

  • Soul (spark of life; most in humans)

The cave


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

Mayr states: "It took more than 2000 years for biology, under the influence of Darwin, to escape the paralyzing grip of essentialism...the rise of modern biology is, in part, the emancipation from Platonic thinking".


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

A. Early Greeks

B. 2nd Greek School

1. Hippocrates (450-377 bc)

2. Plato (427-347 bc)

3. Aristotle (384-322 bc)


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

  • A. Early Greeks

  • B. 2nd Greek School

  • 1. Hippocrates (450-377 bc)

  • 2. Plato (427-347 bc)

  • 3. Aristotle (384-322 bc)

  • Interested in nature

  • Described 100’s of species

  • ScalaNaturae


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

  • A. Early Greeks

  • B. 2nd Greek School

  • 1. Hippocrates (450-377 bc)

  • 2. Plato (427-347 bc)

  • 3. Aristotle (384-322 bc)

  • Interested in nature

  • Described 100’s of species

  • ScalaNaturae

  • Formalized logic, and

  • accepted empirical observations

  • as premises in arguments. But

  • conclusions were drawn from the

  • internal consistency of the argument; they were not

  • tested by observation.


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

A. Early Greeks

B. 2nd Greek School

C. The Impact of Christianity


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

  • A. Early Greeks

  • B. 2nd Greek School

  • C. The Impact of Christianity

  • 1. Constantine the Great

  • (reign 306-337 ad - First Holy Roman Emporor)

  • - conversion to Christianity signaled change from to monotheism in west (middle east monotheistic for millenia).

  • Platonic Dogma’s meshed with Bible:

  • Single, perfect, harmonious, unchanging

  • creation


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

A. Early Greeks

B. 2nd Greek School

C. The Impact of Christianity

1. Constantine the Great

2. Middle Ages

- Fall of Rome (476) to Fall of Constantinople (1453)

- Catholic Church as the Political Power


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

  • A. Early Greeks

  • B. 2nd Greek School

  • C. The Impact of Christianity

  • 1. Constantine the Great

  • 2. Middle Ages

  • - Fall of Rome (476) to Fall of Constantinople (1453)

  • - Catholic Church as Political Power

  • - The Persians (900-1000ce)

    • - Ibn a-lHaytham (Alhazen)

    • - al-Biruni

    • - IbnSena (Avicenna)

Aristotelian logic and Empiricism!!


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

  • A. Early Greeks

  • B. 2nd Greek School

  • C. The Impact of Christianity

  • 1. Constantine the Great

  • 2. Middle Ages

  • - Fall of Rome (476) to Fall of Constantinople (1453)

  • - Catholic Church as Political Power

  • - Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274):

    • - must be an unmoved mover

    • - must be an initial causality

    • - must be an initial being

    • - must be an ultimate good

    • - the ‘design/purpose’ of nature

    • implies a designer

...yes....


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

  • A. Early Greeks

  • B. 2nd Greek School

  • C. The Impact of Christianity

  • 1. Constantine the Great

  • 2. Middle Ages

  • - Fall of Rome (476) to Fall of Constantinople (1453)

  • - Catholic Church as Political Power

  • - Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274):

    • - must be an unmoved mover

    • - must be an initial causality

    • - must be an initial being

    • - must be an ultimate good

    • - the ‘design/purpose’ of nature

    • implies a designer

    • - translating the Persians

    • (with Grosseteste and Bacon)

...yes....


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

A. Early Greeks

B. 2nd Greek School

C. The Impact of Christianity

D. The Renaissance (1400-1700)


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

A. Early Greeks

B. 2nd Greek School

C. The Impact of Christianity

D. The Renaissance (1400-1700)

1. Voyages of Discovery

- 1488 - Dias - Rounds Cape of Good Hope

- 1492 - Columbus - "New World"


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

2. Scientific Revolution

a. Astronomy and Physics

1. NikoliCopernik (1473-1543)

2. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

3. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)

4. Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

Heliocentric solar system

- confirmed by Galileo’s observations

Planets orbit in imperfect ellipses

The motion of planets and other material objects could be explained and predicted based on constant laws of nature


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

A. Early Greeks

B. 2nd Greek School

C. The Impact of Christianity

D. The Renaissance (1400-1700)

1. Voyages of Discovery

2. Scientific Revolution

a. Astronomy and Physics

b. The Age of the Earth


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

A. Early Greeks

B. 2nd Greek School

C. The Impact of Christianity

D. The Renaissance (1400-1700)

1. Voyages of Discovery

2. Scientific Revolution

a. Astronomy and Physics

b. The Age of the Earth

1. James Ussher (1581-1656):

Bishop who Applied logical rigor to

the History of the Earth as revealed in

the Bible... counted the 'begats'...

- creation began at 9am on October 23, 4004 b.c.


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

2. Scientific Revolution

a. Astronomy and Physics

b. The Age of the Earth

1. James Ussher (1581-1656)

2. Nicolaus Steno (1638-1686)

- introduced concept of stratigraphy and superposition

- sedimentary rocks are layered in order deposited

- erosion is continuous and is the primary agent of geology on earth.


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

2. Scientific Revolution

3. Conclusions of the Revolution

- Mechanics of Physical Universe were de-deified

- Constant, physical laws governed nature.

- God as creator (first cause) of universe and laws by which it operates; requires less intervention.


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

2. Scientific Revolution

3. Conclusions of the Revolution

- Mechanics of Physical Universe were de-deified

- Constant, physical laws governed nature.

- God as creator (first cause) of universe and laws by which it operates; requires less intervention.

4. Counter-intuitive Effects on Biology

a. constant laws implied stasis since creation

b. conflict:

- Deists = secondary laws enough

- Natural theologians = diversity and perfection of life requires a God attending to every detail.

"there is special providence in the fall of a sparrow..."

- Shakespeare (1564-1616) - Hamlet


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • 2. Scientific Revolution

  • 3. Conclusions of the Revolution

  • - Mechanics of Physical Universe were de-deified

  • - Constant, physical laws governed nature.

  • - God as creator (first cause) of universe and laws by which it operates; requires less intervention.

  • 4. Counter-intuitive Effects on Biology

  • 5. Resolution and Problems

  • Life was divine and not explicable by natural law

  • Natural Theology re-emerged

  • An impressive cataloguing of nature… Botanist John Ray's book (1691) "The Wisdom of God Manifest in the Works of Creation"

  • How did all these species fit on the ark? Why aren’t they mentioned in the Bible? How did they get to the new world as flood water receded?


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

II. The History of Evolutionary Thought

A. Early Greeks

B. 2nd Greek School

C. The Impact of Christianity

D. The Renaissance (1400-1700)

E. The Enlightenment (1700’s)


Bio55 population genetics and evolution


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • E. The Enlightenment (1700’s)

  • Cultural Climate

  • 2. Natural Theology

  • a. Carl Linne (1707-1778) - "Linnaeus"

  • - the great cataloger

  • - latinbinomen system

  • group species based on reproductive structures

  • created higher taxa order, class, phylum (nested)

  • - SystemaNaturae: Creationistellurisestgloria Dei ex opereNaturae per Hominem solum -- "The Earth's creation is the glory of God, as seen from the works of Nature by Man alone." 1758


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • E. The Enlightenment (1700’s)

  • Cultural Climate

  • 2. Natural Theology

  • a. Carl Linne (1707-1778) - "Linnaeus"

  • b. Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788)

  • - the foremost "biologist" of the 18th century

  • - 1749 Histoire Naturelle

  • emphasized life-history of organisms not their classification (if all are independent creations, what does ‘similarity’ represent, anyway?)

  • Was aware of evolution as a possibility, but…


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

"Not only the ass and the horse, but also man, the apes, the quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."

Georges Buffon - Histoire Naturelle (1766)


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • E. The Enlightenment (1700’s) quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."

  • Cultural Climate

  • 2. Natural Theology

  • a. Carl Linne (1707-1778) - "Linnaeus"

  • b. Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788)

  • "it makes no difference which of the authors of the second half of the 18th century one reads - their discussions are, in the last analysis, merely commentaries on Buffon’s work. Except for Darwin and Aristotle, there has been no other student of organisms who has had as far-reaching an influence." Ernst Mayr - Growth of Biological Thought (1982)


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • E. The Enlightenment (1700’s) quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."

  • Cultural Climate

  • 2. Natural Theology

  • a. Carl Linne (1707-1778) - "Linnaeus"

  • b. Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788)

  • c. William Paley (1743-1805)

Theologian who restated Aquinas’s “proof of God”, largely using the ‘argument of design’ and the ‘watchmaker’ analogy in his book, Natural Theology (1802).


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

2. Natural Theology quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."

a. Carl Linne (1707-1778) - "Linnaeus"

b. Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788)

c. William Paley (1743-1805)

d. James Hutton (1726-1797)

- Wrote "Theory of the Earth" in 1795; marks the discovery of "deep time" in English science.


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • James Hutton (1726-1797) quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."

  • - Wrote "Theory of the Earth" in 1795; marks the discovery of "deep time" in English science.

  • - Based on two observations:

- 1. granite is an igneous rock, it infuses itself into other rocks (shists) and can only do that when molten.


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • James Hutton (1726-1797) quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."

  • - Wrote "Theory of the Earth" in 1795; marks the discovery of "deep time" in English science.

  • - Based on two observations:

2. the proper interpretation of “unconformities” - boundaries between cycles of uplift and erosion


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

Siccar Point unconformity, observed by Hutton quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

Process: quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."

1. Initial depositional cycle


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

Process: quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."

2. uplift (time)


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

Process: quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."

3. erosion (time)


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

Process: quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."

4. second depositional cycle (time)


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • James Hutton (1726-1797) quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."

- the crust is recycled - the earth has "no vestige of a beginning - no prospect of an end"


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • James Hutton (1726-1797) quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."

- the crust is recycled - the earth has "no vestige of a beginning - no prospect of an end"

Hadrian’s Wall – 122 a.d.

White Cliffs of Dover

Hutton supported the contention that the natural processes of erosion and deposition occur at constant rates over geologic time… so it must take eons for sediments to accumulate to the depth of the cliffs., and natural weathered rock outcrops must be extremely old if rock walls 1500 years old show almost no sign of weathering. = UNIFORMITARIANISM


Bio55 population genetics and evolution

  • E. The Enlightenment (1700’s) quadrupeds, and all the animals might be regarded as constituting but a single family... If it were admitted that the ass is of the family of the horse, and different from the horse only because it has varied from the original form, one could equally well say that the ape is of the family of man, that he is a degenerate man, that man and ape have a common origin; that, in fact, all the families, among plants as well as animals, have come from a single stock, and that all the animals are descended from a single animal, from which have sprung in the course of time, as a result of progress or of degeneration, all the other races of animals. For if it were once shown that we are justified in establishing these families; if it were granted that among animals and plants there has been (I do say several species) but even a single one, which has been produced in the course of direct decent from another species; if, for example, it were true that the ass is but a degeneration from the horse - then there would no longer be any limit to the power of nature, and we should not be wrong in supposing that, with sufficient time, she has been able from a single being to derive all the other organized beings. But this is by no means a proper representation of nature. We are assured by the authority of revelation that all animals have participated equally in the grace of direct Creation and that the first pair of every species issued forth fully formed from the hands of the Creator."

  • Cultural Climate

  • 2. Natural Theology

  • 3. Conclusions of the Period

  • All were creationists, their discoveries had to be reconciled with their Biblical worldview. But there were conflicts and inconsistencies:

  • - fossils and extinct species vs. plenitude and universal harmony/perfection

  • - age of earth - 4004 bc? - uh, not likely...

  • - The earth has changed...

  • - How can life remain adapted if earth changes?

  • ...could life change, too?