What is a Clause? • A clause is a group of words that contains both and subject and verb. • There are two clauses DEPENDENT and INDEPENDENT. • DEPENDENT clauses have a subject and verb, but they do not make sense by themselves. They depend on something else in order to make sense. • INDEPENDENT clause have a subject and verb and are complete thoughts. They can stand alone.
Example Dependent Clause • Before we start • After the sun went down • While we waited • When we were younger
Example Independent Clauses • We will say a prayer. • We made a bonfire on the beach. • We listened to our I-pods. • We played silly games.
Simple and Compound Sentences • Simple Sentence = ONE independent clause and NO dependent clauses. • Ex. Brandy’s favorite assignment is writing. • Compound Sentence = Two or more independent clauses and NO dependent clauses. • Ex. Brandy likes to write; she loves the challenge.
Complex Sentences • Complex Sentence = ONE independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. • Ex. When we went fishing, I had no luck. • Ex. The president of student council, who is my best friend, is a true leader. • Ex. I love the way she sings because she sounds like an angel.
Kinds of Dependent Clauses • Adjective Clause = a dependent clause used as an adjective. It answers the questions: what kind, which one, how many, or how much. Adjective clauses usually start with words such as: who, whom, whose, that, or which. Ex. Max is a student who likes to learn.
Kinds of Dependent Clauses • Adverb Clause = a dependent clause used as an adverb. It answers the questions: where, when, why, how, to what extent, and under what conditions. Adverb clauses usually start with words such as: before, because, or when. Ex. Because the weather was bad, school was cancelled.
Kinds of Dependent Clauses • Noun Clause – a dependent clause uses as a noun. It can be used as a subject, P.N., D.O., I.O., or O.P. Noun clauses can start with words such as: that, whomever, whichever, what, or who. Ex. Whoever is making that noise must stop!
Compound-Complex Sentences • A compound-complex sentence = TWO or more independents clause and one or more dependent clauses. • Ex. While we were waiting, she challenged me to a game of tic-tac-toe, and I won!