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HARLEM RBI Strategic Plan Reference Deck August 2007. OVERVIEW OF THIS DOCUMENT. This document contains the supporting data that was used to develop Harlem RBI’s 5-year strategic plan

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overview of this document
OVERVIEW OF THIS DOCUMENT
  • This document contains the supporting data that was used to develop Harlem RBI’s 5-year strategic plan
  • These materials were developed in conjunction with a series of working sessions with the Harlem RBI Strategic Planning Team, conducted from March through August 2007
  • Harlem RBI’s 5-year strategic plan is presented in a separate document
table of contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Project Overview
  • Research Findings Organized by Topic
    • Overall strengths and challenges
    • Identity/Name
    • Programming: Improvement and growth
    • Programming: Codification
    • Space Needs
    • Gentrification and other external trends
    • Stability over time
    • Effect of launching a charter school
core strategic questions of this project
CORE STRATEGIC QUESTIONS OF THIS PROJECT
  • Programmatic focus
  • Identity/name
  • Environmental influences
  • Program codification
  • Space needs
  • Stability over time
  • Strategic priorities
  • To what extent should we continue our focus on “using baseball, softball and the power of teams” with our current age groups vs. broadening our work to other areas, such as a high school, preschool, or mental and physical health?
  • Does Harlem RBI need to change its identity and/or name?
  • The name “Harlem RBI” connotes baseball
  • As the organization moves into running a school, is there a need for an identity and/or name change?
  • How will our program be impacted by our changing environment (such as the gentrification happening in the area) and what implications does this have for our future strategy?
  • Is there a way we can codify our programs and make them available to others in order to replicate our work, and potentially generate revenue?
  • Given our tight physical space and our expectations for continued growth, how will we best meet our facility needs in the future?
  • How can we create more stability for the organization, recognizing that it is currently vulnerable to uncertainties in fundraising, the political climate, reputation effects, etc?
  • What are our priorities for the coming five years, and the sequencing of those priorities?
project timeline
PROJECT TIMELINE

Months

Work modules

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

  • Module 1: Assemble a baseline
  • Module 2: Analyze external trends
  • Module 3: Listen to customers
  • Module 4: Assess competitors and partners
  • Module 5: Investigate analogs for a school/CBO combo
  • Module 6: Assess opportunities for program codification
  • Module 7: Develop strategic direction
    • Meet with Harlem RBI planning team
    • Hold all-staff meetings
    • Meet with Harlem RBI Board
  • Module 8: Investigate space options
  • Module 9: Perform financial projections
  • Module 10: Define an action plan
research conducted
RESEARCH CONDUCTED
  • Completed over 60 interviews with:
    • Funders
    • Community-based organizations
    • Experts on gentrification
    • Real estate professionals
    • Board members
    • Staff
  • Researched 12 analogous community-based organizations in-depth
  • Reviewed published materials on East Harlem demographic data and trends
  • Conducted survey and focus groups of teen participants, parents, and alumni
  • Analyzed Harlem RBI’s space needs and growth opportunities
  • Facilitated a series of monthly 3-hour meetings with the Strategic Planning Committee, consisting of staff, board members and one volunteer
staff and board interviews
STAFF AND BOARD INTERVIEWS

Staff

Board Members

Kelly Adams, Director of Social Services

Rich Berlin, Executive Director

Vince Coleman, Director of Baseball and Softball

Maleka Covington, Development Associate

Rachel Cytron, Deputy Director of Programs

Megan Demarkis, Director of REAL Kids

Joy Harris, Director of Operations

Kara Logan, Director of Development

Jamie McClelland, IT Consultant

Elese Resneck, Director of External Communications

Saran Shields, Program Coordinator

Trish Williford, Director of Team Enrichment

Michael Buckley

Charles Butler

David Cohen

Stacey Cooper

Katherine DeFoyd

Stuart A. Fraser

Daniel M. Healy

Marc E. Jaffe

Chris Leonard

Gilbert Liu

Peter Danaker(1)

Ken Rosh

Jeff Samberg

Robert Sheehan

Jamie Stecher

Ron Taylor

Jenny M. Valdez

Carmen Vega-Rivera

Gregg Walker

Claudia Zeldin

Volunteer

(1) Responses from interview have been combined with Board responses

cbo combo and analogous organization interviews
CBO-COMBO AND ANALOGOUS ORGANIZATION INTERVIEWS

Organization

Interviewee

Title

CBO-subsidiary “Combo” or Analog?

BELL

Boys and Girls Harbor

Citizen Schools

Good Shepard Services

Harlem Children’s Zone

Higher Achievement

Latin American Youth Center

Northwestern University Settlement House

Self Enhancement, Inc.

Stanley Isaacs Center

Union Settlement

University Settlement

Earl Phalen

Hans E. Hageman

Eric Schwartz

Sister Paulette

George Khaldun

Richard Tagle

Lori M. Kaplan

Ron Manderschied

Tony Hobson

Wanda Wooten

Ellen Simon

Michael H. Zisser

Executive Director

Executive Director

President/CEO

Executive Director

COO

Executive Director

Executive Director

President

President

Executive Director

Executive Director

Executive Director

Analog

Analog

Analog

Combo

Analog & Combo

Analog

Combo

Combo

Combo

Analog

Analog

Combo

funder interviews
FUNDER INTERVIEWS

Name

Title

Organization

Emary Aronson

Tom Brasuell

Charles Buice

Charles Hamilton

Roderick Jenkins

Anne Lawrence

Kenneth Merin

Holly Nuechterlein

Elizabeth Olofson

Lisa Philp

Laura Samberg

Peter Sloane

Carol Van Atten

Denice Williams

Director, Relief Fund and Education

VP, Community Affairs

Trustee

Executive Director

Program Officer, Children, Youth and Families

Program Officer

President and CEO

Grant Program Manager

Executive Director

VP, Global Foundations Group

Co-Director

Chairman

Assistant Secretary

Assistant Commissioner, Capacity Building

Robin Hood Foundation

Major League Baseball

Tiger Foundation

Clarke Foundation

New York Community Trust

The Robert Browne Foundation

The Charles Hayden Foundation

Louis Calder Foundation

Stella and Charles Guttman Foundation

JP Morgan Chase Private Bank

Samberg Family Foundation

The Heckscher Foundation for Children

The Charles Hayden Foundation

NYC Department of Youth and Community Development

table of contents1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Project Overview
  • Research Findings Organized by Topic
    • Overall strengths and challenges
    • Identity/Name
    • Programming: Improvement and growth
    • Programming: Codification
    • Space Needs
    • Gentrification and other external trends
    • Stability over time
    • Effect of launching a charter school
interviewees identified a variety of strengths of harlem rbi
INTERVIEWEES IDENTIFIED A VARIETYOF STRENGTHS OF HARLEM RBI
  • Talented and committed staff
    • Routinely looks to improve
    • Low turnover of senior staff
  • Attractive after-school model
    • Uses baseball / softball as a hook
    • Prioritizes education, learning, and long-term success of kids
  • High quality, innovative programming
  • Positive, developmental culture
    • Respectful of everyone
    • Fun
  • Brand recognition
  • Strong, contributing Board
  • Harlem RBI leadership is effective in engaging the Board
  • Volunteer recruitment and management

Source: Interviews conducted with staff and Board Members, March-April 2007

interviewees also suggested a set of challenges
INTERVIEWEES ALSO SUGGESTED A SET OF CHALLENGES

There is a need to decide whether and how to grow the after-school program, especially in light of the charter school endeavor

Gentrification, and its implications for Harlem RBI

A lack of programming and administrative space, particularly if a decision is made to grow

The charter school opportunity will encompass Harlem RBI for the next few years

Insufficient documentation of programming and processes

A need to be deepen or refine some of Harlem RBI’s programs

Some kids are not succeeding in school, despite participation in Harlem RBI

The operational infrastructure may have lagged organizational growth

Some questions about the connection with the immediate East Harlem community

The lack of diversity on the Board and staff

The lack of a succession plan for key staff positions

Strategic planning will:

Address this directly

Address this in part

Not address this directly

Source: Interviews conducted with staff and Board Members, March-April 2007, Wellspring

current funders speak very highly of harlem rbi and cite several limitations as well
CURRENT FUNDERS SPEAK VERY HIGHLY OF HARLEM RBI, AND CITE SEVERAL LIMITATIONS AS WELL

Strengths cited

Limitations cited

  • All funders said Harlem RBI is “attractive” or “highly attractive” when compared with other youth development organizations
  • They recognize strengths similar to those cited by Board and staff
    • Baseball / softball as a hook
    • Ability to retain kids for long periods of time
    • Model which serves older kids, and boys in particular
    • Strong board
    • High quality staff
    • Funding mix
  • Particularly commend Harlem RBI’s transition from a sports-centric program to a robust after-school program
  • Space / capacity constrained
  • Lack of an effective approach to performance measurement
    • There is inconsistency in capturing data such as school attendance, grades
    • Harlem RBI is seen as high cost per youth, but some say better measures are needed in the field (e.g. outcome measures, cost per service hour per youth, ratio of adult hours to youth hours)
    • Some funders would like to see Harlem RBI tracking kids through college graduation, but other funders questioned whether expecting after-school work to drive to academic outcomes is realistic
  • Home-grown and unproven curriculum - question revenue potential

Source: Interviews with funders, April-May 2007

table of contents2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Project Overview
  • Research Findings Organized by Topic
    • Overall strengths and challenges
    • Identity/Name
    • Programming: Improvement and growth
    • Programming: Codification
    • Space Needs
    • Gentrification and other external trends
    • Stability over time
    • Effect of launching a charter school
interviewees cited multiple concerns about a name or identity change
INTERVIEWEES CITED MULTIPLE CONCERNSABOUT A NAME OR IDENTITY CHANGE
  • Most staff noted Harlem RBI’s success in educating its audiences about the nature of its programming
    • “The organization has done a good job getting funders to understand we are not a baseball program. It would be a mistake to change this”
  • ….and were unsure how big of a barrier the name actually is for the organization
    • “With the name we have, people assume we are a baseball organization. I am not sure if it is a problem. Sure it’s a challenge but I am not sure how much of a detriment it is”
    • “I think the name is definitely a barrier; it requires a 20 word description…but I don’t think its worth changing the name over [right now]”
  • One staff member suggested that a name change might be in Harlem RBI’s future, but not in the next five years
    • “We don’t want to do two re-brandings over ten years...in maybe seven years when the school is running smoothly and [the programs are fully developed] then we’re really going to be ready for rebranding”
  • Even staff open to a name change noted the risks of this move due to the strong existing branding
    • “Its a sticky question. We have phenomenal recognition. Our PSAs are going nationwide. We would have to do amazing PR”
  • The one staff member in favor of a name change was less worried about the risks
    • “Name change would be helpful; our name is difficult to explain…Harlem RBI does not say what we do. Harlem Children's zone used to be Rheedlen Centers and its better for [the change]”

Source: Interviews conducted with staff and Board Members, March-April 2007

interviewees support keeping name the same
INTERVIEWEES SUPPORT KEEPING NAME THE SAME

“Do you believe Harlem RBI needs to change its name?”

Yes

Maybe

Maybe

No

No

Source: Interviews conducted with staff and Board Members, March-April 2007

overall funders say harlem rbi should not change its name
OVERALL, FUNDERS SAY HARLEM RBISHOULD NOT CHANGE ITS NAME
  • Funders say the brand recognition is very strong
    • “There are not a huge number of youth organizations in the city with their level of brand recognition”
  • While some say that the name itself does not immediately suggest an after-school program…
    • “When I first heard the name, it took some time for me to come to like it”
  • …all agree that the foundation community looks well beyond the name in making decisions about who to fund
    • “It doesn’t help or hinder with foundations”
  • And, funders recognize the appeal of the brand to individual donors

Source: Interviews with funders, April-May 2007

there is high awareness of harlem rbi s offerings amongst current customers
THERE IS HIGH AWARENESS OF HARLEM RBI’S OFFERINGS AMONGST CURRENT CUSTOMERS

“I have been aware that Harlem RBI provides the following services”

Source: Survey done by Harlem RBI with parents during uniform nights in April 2007, (n=99)

slide19

THERE IS SOME DISAGREEMENT ON THE EXTENT TO WHICH HARLEM RBI IS KNOWN IN THE COMMUNITYFocus Group Participants Offered Suggestions For Improved Awareness

  • Most views on Harlem RBI’s presence are positive:
    • “Hell, yeah. It is [known] now; it used to be a joke; now everyone wants to join. It’s very popular… people ask about it; the field is famous; Carlos Beltran came to the field” (Alumni group)
    • “Metro North and East River know Harlem RBI, but that may be it” (Parents)
  • 38% of survey participants only heard about Harlem RBI in the past 3 years
  • Suggestions on how to better market Harlem RBI:
    • More word-of-mouth
    • MySpace
    • Radio and TV commercials
    • Street fairs
    • Big mailing to the10029 and 10035 zip code
    • Presence at the Puerto Rican Day Parade

Source: Parent survey, April 2007. Focus groups done with Harlem RBI parents, youth and alumni, May 2007

table of contents3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Project Overview
  • Research Findings Organized by Topic
    • Overall strengths and challenges
    • Identity/Name
    • Programming: Improvement and growth
    • Programming: Codification
    • Space Needs
    • Gentrification and other external trends
    • Stability over time
    • Effect of launching a charter school
interviewees strongly affirmed the importance of baseball and softball to harlem rbi s model
INTERVIEWEES STRONGLY AFFIRMED THE IMPORTANCE OF BASEBALL AND SOFTBALL TO HARLEM RBI’S MODEL
  • Attracts kids, including those who would otherwise not participate in baseball
  • Creates opportunities to engage kids’ families
  • Provides distinctive branding
  • Facilitates fundraising
  • Attracts volunteers from a variety of communities and socio-economic backgrounds
  • Easily lends itself to key educational opportunities
    • Mathematical skills
    • Team participation
    • Leadership opportunities
  • Provides much-needed physical activity to counter obesity trends

There is value in ensuring that all of Harlem RBI’s programming is linked to a “hook”, whether or not it is related to baseball / softball

Source: Interviews conducted with staff and Board Members, March-April 2007

many ideas were cited for how harlem rbi could expand its work spanning five different ways to grow
MANY IDEAS WERE CITED FOR HOWHARLEM RBI COULD EXPAND ITS WORKSpanning Five Different Ways to Grow

Continue to strengthen academics

Offer additional team-based sports, particularly in the winter

Offer more social work services

Broaden health and mental health components

Provide financial literacy training

Increase marketing efforts

Offer additional team-based sports

Provide support to alumni (e.g. college internship assistance, coping with cultural adjustments, etc.)

Develop programming for K to 1 grade-levels, particularly in light of charter-school plan

Open satellite locations (e.g. upper East Harlem, Washington Heights, etc.)

Hold more community events

Provide support to parents, such as job training and ESL classes

Provide fee-based consultation to disseminate model

  • Increase programming to current kids
  • Increase number of kids in current programming
  • Serve additional age groups and constituencies
  • Expand to new geographies
  • Pursue ancillary work

Source: Interviews conducted with staff and Board Members, March-April 2007

other team sports are a relatively low interest of current participants
OTHER TEAM SPORTS ARE A RELATIVELYLOW INTEREST OF CURRENT PARTICIPANTS

“Please rate your how likely you are to participate in each of the following activities?”(1)

% of respondents (n=64)

  • Respondents could choose from “Extremely likely”, “Very likely”, “Likely”, “Not so likely” and “Not likely at all”
  • Source: Teen focus groups conducted by Harlem RBI staff, May 2007
parents cite a variety of service needs many already receive services but want more
PARENTS CITE A VARIETY OF SERVICE NEEDSMany Already Receive Services, But Want More

Parents were asked whether they need the following services. They could choose from: “Have but want more”, “Have and don’t need more”, “Don’t have, need” and “Don’t have, don’t need”

Don’t have / need

Have / want more

Percent of respondents (n=60)

Source: Parent survey of teens ages 13-18, April 2007

alumni interests revolve largely around college success and job placement
ALUMNI INTERESTS REVOLVE LARGELY AROUNDCOLLEGE SUCCESS AND JOB PLACEMENT

Alumni are interested in helping out current youth in some limited ways (Caveat: Small sample)

Alumni would like to receive support for getting through college, finding jobs

  • “What are some things you could see Harlem RBI offering to its alumni?”
    • Resource help
    • Help with papers
    • Essay writing
    • Money for school
    • Mentors
    • Jobs during school
    • Family planning
    • Career options,
    • College advice (courses)
    • Dorm life help
    • Networking

“Please rate how likely you are to participate in each of the following activities?”(1)

Extremely

likely

Very likely

When asked to prioritize this list, alumni scored “money for school”, “mentors” and “career advice” as the top three interests

% of respondents (n=7)

  • Respondents could choose from “Extremely likely”, “Very likely”, “Likely”, “Not so likely” and “Not likely at all”
  • Source: Teen focus groups conducted by Harlem RBI staff, May 2007
funders views on harlem rbi s work going forward
FUNDERS’ VIEWS ON HARLEM RBI’SWORK GOING FORWARD
  • Most frequently cited strategic priorities were:
    • Quality enhancement (8 mentions)(1)
    • Success with charter school (7 mentions)
    • Youth retention (4 mentions)
    • Performance measurement (4 mentions)
    • Succession planning / adding “bench strength” (2 mentions)
  • Funders are mixed on whether Harlem RBI should increase the number of kids it serves
    • Most funders say increasing the population served is not necessary for success
    • However, some suggest that the volume of kids served is important for demonstrating results to sustain funding
  • Funders question revenue potential of codification
    • “I think there are a lot of good youth development principles and practices out there already”
    • “I’m not sure of the appetite for this”
    • “They have a great hook, but I’m not sure if there is an ‘academic model’ they could sell”

(1) Unprompted.; out of 13 interviews (1 of the 14 interviewees was not in a position to comment on Harlem RBI’s priorities); several other items received one mention.

Source: Interviews with funders, April-May 2007

slide27
FUNDERS SAY THAT SCHOOL QUALITYIS THE TOP ISSUE IN EAST HARLEMBut Raise Cautions About Harlem RBI’s Planned Charter School

School quality concerns were

cited by most funders

Yet, funders question whether Harlem RBI should pursue a charter school

“The first thing that comes to mind in terms of challenges in East Harlem is the lack of strong schools”

“What is lacking is quality public education… the public schools are insufficient”

“Other than the Charter school, I’m not sure what else they could do in East Harlem. There seem to be a lot of programs already”

“There is a lot of frustration about how bad the schools are”

“Most of the schools are pretty poor”

“I’m not sure the solution is really to have youth development programs setting up charter schools”

“The school will have a tremendous impact on how Rich spends his time”

“You can’t do things piece-meal when you do a school”

“Starting a school is no small endeavor. It’s not an easy task to do that and manage everything else”

“Charter schools are a mess. I’m a huge supporter, but I’m concerned that Harlem RBI is not equipped to deal with staff and facility headaches”

Source: Interviews with funders, April-May 2007

slide28
PROGRAMMING QUALITY AND QUANTITY TO CURRENT YOUTH SEEN AS MOST ATTRACTIVE FUNDING STRATEGIESMany Other Strategies Are Quite Unattractive

On a scale of 1-5, (1-not attractive and 5-very attractive) how attractive would this funding opportunity be to you over the next five years?

% of survey

Respondents (n=12)

Suggests funders support investing in deeper relationships with kids Harlem RBI currently reaches

(1) Two of the fourteen funders interviewed were not asked to rate funding attractiveness (DYCD and MLB); in some cases, responses did not rate each category

Source: Interviews with funders, April-May 2007

slide29

THERE ARE LIMITED WEEKDAY HOURS TOADD PROGRAMMING FOR REAL KIDS Discussion: Should We Consider Growing Into Saturday Hours?

School

hours

Harlem RBI

hours

Other hours potentially available for programming

Source: Harlem RBI Program Schedules

methodology for ranking major program endeavors
METHODOLOGY FOR RANKING MAJOR PROGRAM ENDEAVORS
  • A list of seven potential major endeavors was generated through research and discussion:
    • Introduce two new teams per grade-level for the teen programs in East Harlem
    • Pursue a second charter school for K-8
    • Launch a charter high school
    • Conduct early childhood programming
    • Develop young adult program (may include: college retention; summer jobs; networking etc.)
    • Replicate Harlem RBI in a nearby location
    • Replicate Harlem RBI in another city
  • Members of the Strategic Planning team and six additional senior staff members assessed which of these endeavors Harlem RBI should pursue, after a successful charter school launch. The potential endeavors were rated according to the following six criteria:
    • The extent of unmet need
    • Prioritizes deeper relationships with youth
    • Allows Harlem RBI to improve lives of families
    • Contributes to long-term outcomes
    • Expresses our culture, core values and strengths
    • Synergy between endeavor and the after-school and charter school
providing early childhood programs received the highest ranking
PROVIDING EARLY CHILDHOOD PROGRAMS RECEIVED THE HIGHEST RANKING

(1)

Percent of scores

above

4 or 5

= Average number of 4s and 5s

(2)

Average number of 4s and 5s:

61%

55%

46%

40%

31%

28%

22%

Survey questions

The extent of the unmet need

Contributes to long term outcomes

  • Scores given on a 1-5 scale, 1= Very Low, 5= Very High
  • Doubling the teen program would suggest a doubling of the Real Kids academic year program, which acts as a feeder
  • Source: Harlem RBI Major Endeavors Survey, June-July 2007

Prioritizes deeper relationships

Expresses our culture, core values, and strength

Allows us to improve lives of each family

Synergy between endeavor and the afterschool and charter school

major endeavors survey questions
MAJOR ENDEAVORS SURVEY QUESTIONS

Survey questions asked of senior staff and strategic planning committee members. Responses could be: “Very high”, “Somewhat high”, “Moderate”, “Somewhat low”, “Very low”, and “Don’t know”

  • “In your opinion, what is the extent of unmet need for this endeavor? The level of unmet need is…”
  • “To what extent do you believe this endeavor prioritizes pursuing deeper relationships with a smaller number of kids and their families over working with a high number of kids? The extent to which this endeavor can prioritize deep relationships with kids is...”
  • “ To what extent do you believe this endeavor will focus on helping Harlem RBI improve the lives of each family? This endeavor's potential to help the youth's family improve their lives is...”
  • “To what extent do you believe this endeavor will contribute to long-term outcomes for youth? This endeavor's focus on long-term outcomes for youth is...”
  • “To what extent do you believe Harlem RBI can readily incorporate its culture, core values and strengths, in this endeavor? (Note: Harlem RBI’s core values include: Growth, Excellence, Team, Aspiration) The extent to which this endeavor can readily incorporate Harlem RBI's culture and values is...”
  • “How much synergy would you expect between this endeavor and the current work of the after-school program and the pending Charter School? The level of synergy I would expect is...”
slide33
THERE IS BENEFIT IN LAYING OUT THE PROGRAM DESIGN AND DESIRED OUTCOMES IN ANTICIPATION OF FURTHER GROWTH
  • BELL, Higher Achievement, and Citizen Schools invested in solidifying their afterschool models before attempting to significantly replicate their models
  • Higher Achievement went through a process of redesigning programs and establishing outcome goals to position itself for growth
    • “We decided to restructure the organization to become an outcome-based model. We looked at what would it take to generate ‘X’ results...We started with the results and then reconfigured our program model, which then fed into the organization’s theory of change”
  • While BELL was still just a couple of school sites in Boston , the organization spent time clarifying the model and desired outcomes
    • “In the first stages we were trying to get proof of concept. Did it work? What’s the curriculum we need? What’s the training we need to provide?”
  • Citizen Schools focused on growing and proving its model in Boston, before thinking about replicating beyond Boston
    • Spent time aligning the model with Boston Public Schools learning standards

Source: Interviews with Analogous Organizations, May 2007. “Citizen Schools: Creating a strong program locally as a basis for national expansion” 2004. The Bridgespan Group

organizations use metrics for both program enhancement and operational efficiency
ORGANIZATIONS USE METRICS FOR BOTH PROGRAM ENHANCEMENT AND OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY

Growing organizations have invested in monitoring program performance

Use of operational metrics can lead to increased efficiency

  • All analogs that are seeking to grow have at least one staff member whose sole role is to lead program evaluation and data collection
  • Higher Achievement’s data monitoring system provides regular feedback to staff on the performance of specific sites
    • Data is reviewed at bi-weekly staff meetings
  • BELL’s performance tracking system allows management at all levels to utilize real-time site performance data
    • Including student skills assessments and attendance
  • Early on, Higher Achievement used data to identify the ideal size of program sites
    • “The more kids we added beyond 100 the less efficiency there was. Less kids were completing homework. There was tardiness... If you go less than 80 students it is cost inefficient”
  • BELL monitors operational indicators, including staff shift time on a regular basis
    • “We said what are the top 20 things we need to look at, from attendance to shift management…we realized that if someone was supposed to work thirty minutes, but it was taking them an hour - that was costing us”

Source: Interviews with Analogous Organizations, May 2007

table of contents4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Project Overview
  • Research Findings Organized by Topic
    • Overall strengths and challenges
    • Identity/Name
    • Programming: Improvement and growth
    • Programming: Codification
      • Case for codification
      • Harlem RBI Codification Process Space Needs
    • Space Needs
    • Gentrification and other external trends
    • Stability over time
    • Effect of launching a charter school
the case for codification

Case for Codification

THE CASE FOR CODIFICATION
  • Research indicates that codification is an important precursor to significant growth
  • There is an opportunity for Harlem RBI to make a concerted effort to document the tools and procedures used throughout the organization(1)
    • This likely will have results in visible and invisible costs, including time spent recreating processes and knowledge loss due to staff exit
  • Codification will strengthen Harlem RBI internally by
    • Promoting efficiency so that high repetition functions do not need to be recreated
    • Allowing complex tasks to be more easily communicated and executed
    • Supporting organizational learning and improvement, as old documents are updated
    • Ensuring consistency and coherence across the organization
  • There will likely be external benefits as well
    • Protecting against legal or brand risk
    • Allowing Harlem RBI to more effectively communicate desired components of our model to desired audiences
  • Staff interviews
codification is valuable when planning to grow requires management attention

Case for Codification

CODIFICATION IS VALUABLE WHEN PLANNING TO GROWRequires Management Attention
  • For analogs, codification entailed documenting programs and establishing processes to keep materials up-to-date, and incorporating use of materials into programs and staff training
  • In order to replicate while maintaining quality, BELL, Higher Achievement, and Citizen Schools have devoted significant attention to program codification
    • Higher Achievement has documented their program model through written materials and training; includes a culture document and culture focused training modules
    • Citizen Schools has documented its program model and runs multiple trainings to help sites to implement the model successfully
    • BELL’s model has been documented and it is taught through staff trainings; BELL is exploring licensing its model so it can spread its outcomes to more children
  • Programs which have not fully codified acknowledge lack of sufficient management attention as the main cause
    • Boys and Girls Harbor would like to document its programs but struggles because there is not a senior program manager to coordinate it
    • In the past, Stanley Isaacs and Union Settlement have codified some programs, but acknowledge their efforts are incomplete, out of date, and only sporadically utilized

Source: Interviews with Analogous Organizations, May 2007

slide38

1. Design and prioritize

(Focus of strategic planning)

2. Document

Develop codification approach

Identify and group Harlem RBI work activities

Prioritize activities to be codified, based on criteria

Identify and document content, tools and procedures for prioritized activities

Make documented files accessible

3. Set-up system

4. Keep materials

up-to-date

Develop IT system to store codified documents

Establish processes for accessing documents

Set review schedule for each activity

Review documents and make changes as needed

Track “freshness” of content as part of performance

Codification Process

THERE ARE FOUR PARTS TO CODIFICATION

summary of harlem rbi s codification approach

Codification Process

SUMMARY OF HARLEM RBI’s CODIFICATION APPROACH
  • Four steps associated with codifying Harlem RBI’s work were identified:
    • Lay out approach to codification and prioritize work activities
    • Document each activity, starting with highest priority items
    • Develop systems and processes to support codification
    • Keep codification materials up to date
  • A review of Harlem RBI’s work resulted in 45 distinct activities, falling into five categories(1)
  • These activities were ranked using the following questions on a 5-point scale(2) by senior Harlem RBI staff
    • Repetition: “How frequently is this activity repeated, when compared with other activities?”
    • Risk: “What is the level of business risk (e.g. brand risk, legal risk) for this activity, when compared with other activities?”
    • Complexity: “How complex is this activity, when compared with other activities?”
    • Influence: “How much influence does this activity's effectiveness have on other Harlem RBI activities?”
    • Visibility: “How visible is this activity to outside audiences, such as parents, funders, etc., when compared with other activities?
  • Developed by Harlem RBI staff with support from Wellspring
  • For each question, participants could chooose from “Very High”, “Somewhat high”, “Moderate”, “Somewhat Low” and “Very low”
guiding principles for codification

Codification Process

GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR CODIFICATION
  • Codification will be performed in a way that will:
    • Ensure that Harlem RBI’s culture is practiced in all its work
    • Allow high priority activities to be documented in advance of other items
    • Demonstrate uniform approaches across all departments and programs
    • Support use of codified materials (e.g., user friendly documents)
    • Allow for innovation over time
    • Establish clear ownership of codified documents
    • Involve all staff members in documentation, sharing and innovation
slide41

Codification Process

HIERARCHY FOR CODIFICATIONPage 1 of 2

1. Codification area

2. Activity

3. Content, procedures and tools

  • Five areas cover all work at Harlem RBI
    • Organization-wide activities (e.g., culture)
    • Development
    • Programs
    • Supporting operations
    • Management and governance
  • Each codification area contains 5 to 15 activities

Identified activities cover all of the major work done by Harlem RBI

Codification is prioritized at the activity level

Each activity contains anywhere from 2-20 tools and procedures which can be documented

There should be a staff lead identified for each activity

Discreet work, which can be strengthened through codification

Harlem RBI aims to ensure that the majority of its work is documented through content, procedures and tools

There should be a staff lead identified for each procedure or tool

slide42

Codification Process

HIERARCHY FOR CODIFICATIONPage 2 of 2

Codification Area (e.g, Programs)

Activity 1 (e.g., Develop and deliver sports)

Activity 2

Activity 3

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Documents: Content, procedures and tools

slide43

Codification Process

FORTY-FIVE WORK ACTIVITIES IN FIVE AREAS WERE IDENTIFIED

Organization-wide activities

Management and governance

Programs

Development

Supporting operations

Articulate Harlem RBI’s culture and identity

Build Harlem RBI “community” (e.g., staff and youth events)

Manage inter-departmental activities (staff meetings, communications)

Facilitate staff evaluations, career development (includes staff exit as needed)

Recruit staff

Build relationships with external communities (e.g., East Harlem, CBOs, etc.)

Procure supplies

Undertake program planning and integration

Develop and deliver sports

Develop and deliver academics/enrichment

Develop and deliver special events and youth opportunities

Provide social work services (TLC)

Communicate with parents

Communicate with schools

Ensure youth safety

Evaluate programs

Plan for programs (Schedules/ logistics)

Recruit and enroll youth

Track and manage youth

Recruit volunteers

Manage volunteers

Train staff and volunteers

  • Undertake development planning
  • Hold fundraising events
    • Bids for Kids
    • Diamond Ball
    • Golf Outing
  • Foster spokespersons for Harlem RBI
  • Conduct marketing and communications
  • Manage giving campaigns
    • Public
    • Private
    • Individual
  • Report to donors
  • Get sponsors for teams
  • Utilize Board of Directors for development
  • Perform donor stewardship
  • Manage donor relationships with programs

Manage budget and monthly reconciliations

Maintain emergency preparedness plan

Conduct financial reporting

Ensure legal compliance

Manage benefits and compensation

Manage facilities

Manage information technology

Perform general office functions (e.g., equipment maintenance, reception)

  • Maintain effective Board, Junior Board and Home Leadership Council
    • Recruiting
    • Committee structure
    • Communication and engagement
  • Manage MLB relationship
  • Conduct strategic planning and business planning routinely
  • Plan for succession
  • Manage government relations

Source: Developed by Harlem RBI staff with support from Wellspring

results of codification prioritization survey top fifteen activities of forty five

Codification Process

RESULTS OF CODIFICATION PRIORITIZATION SURVEYTop Fifteen Activities, of Forty-five

Source: Harlem RBI Codification Survey, June 2007

slide45

Codification Process

RESULTS OF CODIFICATION PRIORITIZATION SURVEY(Items 16-30)

Source: Harlem RBI Codification Survey, June 2007

slide46

Codification Process

RESULTS OF CODIFICATION PRIORITIZATION SURVEY(Items 31-45)

Source: Harlem RBI Codification Survey, June 2007

documentation checklist preliminary

Codification Process

DOCUMENTATION CHECKLIST - PRELIMINARY

Complete for each document (content, procedures, tools)

Has the owner of this document been identified?

Does this document reinforce Harlem RBI’s culture?

Is the document clear and user-friendly?

Does the document clearly specify when it is to be used?

Does the document allow for variations by program, if appropriate?

Were the staff who use this document given the opportunity to provide input?

Was the document reviewed for consistency with other similar documents?

If this document concerns youth safety or other related matters, does the document follow legal guidelines?

Has the next review date for this document been established?

___ Yes ___ No

___ Yes ___ No

___ Yes ___ No

___ Yes ___ No

___ Yes ___ No

___ Yes ___ No

___ Yes ___ No

___ Yes ___ No

___ Yes ___ No

slide48

Codification Process

THREE ASPECTS TO ENSURE EFFECTIVESHARING OF CODIFIED DOCUMENTS

Master filing system

Consistent tagging of documents for ease of use

Human resource practices

An electronic filing system which classifies documents in logical groupings and facilitates ease of searching

Location of all documents on a share drive

Contact information for the person or program responsible for creating the document

Date the item was last updated

Next scheduled update date

  • New staff will participate in an orientation on the contents of the system and how to use it
  • Managers will be responsible for encouraging staff to use documentation system
table of contents5
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Project Overview
  • Research Findings Organized by Topic
    • Overall strengths and challenges
    • Identity/Name
    • Programming: Improvement and growth
    • Programming: Codification
    • Space Needs
    • Gentrification and other external trends
    • Stability over time
    • Effect of launching a charter school
current space is tight but costs are low
CURRENT SPACE IS TIGHT BUT COSTS ARE LOW
  • Harlem RBI currently has approximately 5,500 square feet of space across two locations
  • There are several program and administrative limitations to the space
    • RealKids program and parts of teen programs are held in off-site locations, usually public schools
      • Harlem RBI has limited opportunity to influence the space
      • This space lacks air conditioning for summer programming
    • At times, staff have faced challenges finding private spaces to meet with youth one-on-one for sensitive matters
    • Due to lack of conference and meeting space, administrative efficiency is sometimes compromised
      • Interviews are conducted in hallways and open spaces
      • Meetings have to be scheduled around program times
      • Larger meetings and trainings must be conducted off-site
  • However, Harlem RBI currently only spends $120,000 per year (~$22 per square foot) for rent
    • Most estimates from brokers for currently available space exceed $30 per square foot

Source: Harlem RBI estimates and internal data; staff interviews

slide51
THE MAJORITY OF ON-SITE SPACE NEEDSARE SMALL AND DOUBLE ROOMSHow Participants Use Space During the School-Year

Key:

Hours (% of hours)

  • Junior and Senior program time includes time potentially spent in internships.
  • Source: Harlem RBI Winter and Summer Program Schedules. Harlem RBI Staff.
slide52

ANALYSIS SUGGESTS ~10,000 SQUARE FEET OF SPACE COULD COMFORTABLY ACCOMMODATE HARLEM RBI(1)

Room Type

Number of Rooms

Square Feet

Small Group Room

Double Group Room

Large Activity Room

Kitchen

Youth Lounge

Exclusive TLC room

Large Conference Room

Small Meeting Room/TLC Room

Office Space(2)

Sub total:

Misc Space (Hallways, Storage, etc.)(3)

Total Space

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

2

28

41

41

1,800

1,200

1,000

400

300

70

350

200

2,185

7,505

2,502

10,007

Adding 10,000 square feet at $30 per square foot translates into an increase of rent expense from $120,000 to $300,000 (2.5x)

  • This assumes that Harlem RBI implements the initiatives of this plan, but does not factor in other potential growth
  • Office Space includes five large offices, 6 small offices, 4 shared offices, and 14 cubicles
  • Based on 25 sq feet for every 75 sq feet of program and admin space
  • Note: REAL Kids could be added during the school year for an additional 1,300 square feet. A gym could add another 2,000 square feet
  • Source: Wellspring Analysis
slide53

Detail

KEY SPACE USAGE ASSUMPTIONS(Page 1 of 2)

Topic

Assumption

Source

Overall space assumption

Time for programming

REAL Kids program space

TeamBuilders program space

TLC Individual/Family Sessions

Usage is modeled on winter program usage, because it requires more space at Harlem RBI

Use of rooms is based on Monday-Friday, of 3pm - 8pm

All programming takes place in schools, off-site

Programming is moved from schools to Harlem RBI space

One private TLC room must be available at all times

TLC staff will have two private offices, which may be used for sessions

Small meeting rooms will also function as TLC rooms

Harlem RBI

Harlem RBI

Harlem RBI, current model

Harlem RBI, intended model

Harlem RBI

slide54

Detail

KEY SPACE USAGE ASSUMPTIONS(Page 2 of 2)

Topic

Assumption

Source

Use of Large Activity Room

Kitchen

Youth Lounge

Field Space

The large activity room is used both for youth programs and for staff trainings

One large kitchen will be shared for programming and meal/snack preparation

A youth lounge is added to replace the one that was taken over as program space

Not a constraint within current growth figures. Keep current field, or trade up for larger space

Harlem RBI

Harlem RBI anticipated space needs. Nutrition is not currently big part of programming due to lack of access

Harlem RBI

slide55

Detail

SPACE USAGE ASSUMPTIONS

Topic

Assumption

Source

DreamWorks

Optional teen activities

TLC Group Sessions

Misc. Space (hallways, bathrooms, storage, etc.)

The 11th and 12th grade group will add one team to accommodate the feed from the 9th and 10th grade program, growing to 4 teams

Half of teens participate in enrichment or tutoring each day

Take place in team rooms during team time

Necessary square footage is increased by 33% to account for Mics. space

Harlem RBI

Harlem RBI

TeamBuilders schedule

Wellspring assumption based on school district data, Thompson School District, Loveland, CO

slide56

Detail

ROOM SIZE ASSUMPTIONS

Data

Assumption (Sqft)

Source

  • Program room sizes
    • Single (one team)
    • Double (two teams)
    • Large (4 teams)
  • Office sizes
    • Large
    • Small
    • Shared
    • Cubicle
  • Youth Lounge
  • Small meeting rooms
  • Dedicated TLC space
  • Large conference room
  • 450
  • 600
  • 1000
  • 125
  • 75
  • 90
  • 60
  • 300
  • 100
  • 70
  • 350

The Mound is 450 sqft

Wellspring assumption

Diamond, former youth lounge is 330 sqft

Wellspring assumption

Approximate size of current TLC rooms

Wellspring assumption

slide58
LOCATION CHOICE FAVORS LOWER EAST HARLEMAcross Age Groups, Over 80% of Harlem RBI’sEast Harlem Youth Live Below 110th Street

Percent of HRBI

participants

Below 110th Street

Above 110th Street

Source: Harlem RBI Student Enrollment Data. May 2007

slide59

RATING SCENARIOS

Business considerations

Programmatic considerations

Level of risk by not depending on school’s success

Comfort for the after-school program

Ease of synergy with charter school

Convenience to current participants

Opportunity to grow

Financial favorability

Scenario

  • Stay in current location
  • Expand, stay below 116th street, without co-locating with charter school
  • Expand above 116th street, without co-locating with charter school
  • Seek charter school space below 116th, and expand
  • Seek charter school space above 116th, and expand

Low

High

High

Medium

Medium

High

Med. - High

Low

Med. - High

Low

Medium

Medium

Medium

High

High

Medium

High

High

High

High

High

Low

Low – Med.

Low – Med.

Medium

Medium

Medium

Medium

Low

Low

Source: Wellspring assumptions and analysis

slide60

TRANSLATING THE RATINGS INTO SCORES SUGGESTS IT IS IMPORTANT TO STAY BELOW 116TH STREETStand-Alone Options Have Less Possible Downside

Scenario:

#1 - Stay in current

location

#2 - Expand alone,

below 116th

#3 - Expand alone,

above 116th

#4 - Co-locate,

below 116th

#5 - Co-locate,

above 116th

Sum of scores

Low = 1

Medium = 3

High = 5

Source: Wellspring assumptions and analysis

slide61

PROPOSED SCORING APPROACH

Consideration

Approach to scoring

Comfort for the after-school program

Convenience to current participants

Ease of synergy with charter school

Opportunity to grow

Financial favorability

Level of risk by not depending on school’s success

  • Higher when new space needs are met
  • Higher when stand-alone (don’t have to share entrances, etc.)
  • Highest when near current location
  • Lowest when above 116th street
  • Higher when co-located
  • Moderate when separate facilities
  • Medium for current location
  • High for expanded locations
  • Higher when costs are close to current levels
  • Medium when costs are at charter school levels or when property is above 116th street
  • Lower for stand-alone locations in lower East Harlem
  • Medium when co-located (some risk is present)
  • Low when separate
table of contents6
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Project Overview
  • Research Findings Organized by Topic
    • Overall strengths and challenges
    • Identity/Name
    • Programming: Improvement and growth
    • Programming: Codification
    • Space Needs
    • Gentrification and other external trends
    • Stability over time
    • Effect of launching a charter school
several external trends which could affect harlem rbi s work were cited by interviewees
SEVERAL EXTERNAL TRENDS WHICH COULD AFFECT HARLEM RBI’S WORK WERE CITED BY INTERVIEWEES

Trend cited during interview(1)

Possible implications for Harlem RBI’s strategy and work

East Harlem is gentrifying

There is an increase in gang activity in East Harlem

The mix of Latino population is becoming more diverse

The health of children is getting worse (e.g. obesity)

Relationships between schools and after-schools are changing (e.g., increased CBO presence during the school day, emerging models such as extended day)

Discussed in next section

Programming for younger children may need to focus more on helping them avoid gangs and cope with their presence

Harlem RBI may want to grow and strengthen services to high school students

Staffing and board membership may need to reflect multiple Latino cultures

Programming may need to further address cultural diversity

Programming may need to include increased health and nutrition components

There may be increased interest in Harlem RBI’s model due to its emphasis on physical activity

Harlem RBI may be able to incorporate its programming into the school-day

Longer school days may limit student participation in CBO after-school programs

  • What trends are you aware of in the broader environment of East Harlem or New York City that you believe will impact Harlem RBI’s future strategy?
  • Source: Interviews conducted with staff and Board Members, March-April 2007
the income distribution in east harlem has shifted upwards
THE INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN EASTHARLEM HAS SHIFTED UPWARDS

$150K+

$100K-

149K

Under $25K

$25K-49K

$50K-99K

2000

2005

Percentage of households

Source: Census 2000, US Census Bureau. The American Community Survey 2005. Manhattan Community District 11 data available from New York City Department of Planning. Earnings not adjusted for inflation

housing values in east harlem have increased at twice the rate of housing citywide
HOUSING VALUES IN EAST HARLEM HAVE INCREASEDAT TWICE THE RATE OF HOUSING CITYWIDE

Median Price Per Unit (For a 5+ Unit Residential Unit), ($)

CAGR

99-04

24%

13%

In a ranking based on Median Price Per Unit for 5+ Residential Units in New York City Community Districts, East Harlem moved up from 43rd in 2002 to to 14th in 2005 (1)

Note: CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate

(1) 2002 ranking out of 47 ranking districts, out of the total of 59 community districts. 2005 ranking from 45 of the 59 districts.

Source: New York City Housing and Neighborhood Information System. State of New York City’s Housing and Neighborhoods, 2005. The Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy.

subsidized housing in east harlem has declined significantly
SUBSIDIZED HOUSING IN EAST HARLEMHAS DECLINED SIGNIFICANTLY

Mitchell-Lama Rental and Co-op Units

Section-8 Rental Units

Number of units

Number of units

CAGR, -17%

CAGR, -5%

Source: Affordable No More 2004. New York City Comptrollers Office. Affordable No More: An Update. 2006. New York City Comptroller’s Office. New York City Housing and Neighborhood Information System. Mitchell-Lama housing is owned by private developers who received tax incentives at the time the property was built and were required to keep housing affordable for a contractual period of time. Thousands of Mitchell-Lama units across New York City have recently exited their contractual period. Under the Section 8 program, low-income tenants receive vouchers for assistance with rents in private housing. New York City landlords are not required to participate in this program.

slide67
FUNDERS’ MAIN CONCERN WITHGENTRIFICATION IS RISING RENTSViews Vary on Whether to Limit Services to Most Needy
  • Funders say that CBOs have gotten hit pretty hard with increased rent; say that Harlem RBI should find space now rather than waiting
  • Funders’ experience to date suggests that gentrification has had a limited impact on ability to serve needy kids
  • Most say to stick to model of serving the neighborhood rather than trying to introduce barriers to service
    • Don’t support closing doors to those who can afford to pay
    • Mixed on sliding scale fees – complex to manage, hard to price and justify
    • Key is to stick to the education-focused model, using sports as a dominant component for attracting and developing kids
  • Views vary on whether to serve kids from high income families:
    • “It’s not ideal to subsidize, but if it is just a small number of kids are being affected, I don’t think it is an issue”
    • “No, don’t serve higher income kids”

Source: Interviews with funders, April-May 2007

interviewees raised a handful of specific concerns about gentrification
INTERVIEWEES RAISED A HANDFUL OF SPECIFICCONCERNS ABOUT GENTRIFICATION
  • Some interviewees were concerned that the low-income population in East Harlem would be displaced
    • Leaving Harlem RBI with few low-income youth left to serve
  • Staff disagree on the best way to address the desire of higher income families to participate in Harlem RBI
    • Some cited the benefits of some integration for the youth participants
    • Some were open to sliding fee scales
    • Others believe Harlem RBI should work with only the neediest youth
  • Interviewees also question whether East Harlem will still be considered a high need area in the future
    • Perception of community need could impact future fundraising ability

Source: Interviews conducted with staff and Board Members, March-April 2007

some focus group participants expressed concerns about gentrification
SOME FOCUS GROUP PARTICIPANTS EXPRESSEDCONCERNS ABOUT GENTRIFICATION
  • They recognize the gentrification that is happening
    • “East Harlem is becoming the new 86th street”
    • “’They are taking over. The white people are buying new buildings, raising rents in “Metro North” and renaming the neighborhood to ‘East Yorkville’”
    • “More people with small dogs”
  • Some raise concerns
    • “RBI will be pushed out; residents will have hurt feelings and not want to return to East Harlem to go to RBI”
    • “There won’t be enough space for the fields”
    • “They are knocking down where we live and rebuilding over it with high class apartments”
    • “We’ll have to take the bus to come to Harlem RBI”
  • However, some feel Harlem RBI needs to stay on mission
    • “Need to adapt”
    • “Stay focused”
    • “Roll with the punches”
    • “Get bigger… add more teams”

Source: Focus groups done with Harlem RBI parents, youth and alumni, May 2007

others had a more optimistic view about gentrification
OTHERS HAD A MORE OPTIMISTIC VIEW ABOUT GENTRIFICATION
  • “Increased white presence means less trash in the street and greater security. Gentrification has had a positive presence. Police come when you call. They even put cops back on the beat in some areas”
  • “It’s not going to affect Harlem RBI at all. We can integrate…. The neighborhood will be nicer with more integration between Mexican, black, and white. More diversity means more resources”
  • “Harlem RBI will increase in value and become more visible in the community”
  • “More kids may come to Harlem RBI and people will respect it”

Source: Focus groups done with Harlem RBI parents, youth and alumni, May 2007

slide71
PUBLIC HOUSING LIMITS GENTRIFICATION IN EAST HARLEMThere are 13 Public Housing Development South of 116th Street

116th St.

96th St.

“East Harlem is different [from other communities facing gentrification] because a high percent of housing is public or subsidized in some way. You could have a meaningful number of low and moderate income people …and also have these higher-income people moving in”

Note: Metro North Houses are no longer subsidized housing. They left the Mitchell-Lama program in 2005.

Source: Expert interviews, April 2007. Manhattan Community District 11, 197-a Plan. Revised 1999.

rental housing in east harlem consists largely of subsidized and rent stabilized housing
RENTAL HOUSING IN EAST HARLEM CONSISTS LARGELYOF SUBSIDIZED AND RENT STABILIZED HOUSING

Housing Type

Amount

  • Rental units
  • Regulated rental housing units
      • Subsidized units
      • Rent regulated units
  • Total regulated rental units
  • 42,245
    • 57%
    • 34%
  • x 91%
  • 38,020

Of the 38,020 units, 15,798 (41%) are public housing units controlled by City and State governments – least likely to be eliminated

Source: The State of New York City’s Housing and Neighborhoods, 2005 and 2006 Edition. The Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy. New York City Housing and Neighborhood Information System, 2006 Data.

fifty two percent of harlem rbi s east harlem participants live in public housing
FIFTY-TWO PERCENT OF HARLEM RBI’S EAST HARLEM PARTICIPANTS LIVE IN PUBLIC HOUSING

Harlem RBI

youth living outside of East Harlem

Harlem RBI youth living in non- public housing, East Harlem

Harlem RBI youth living in East Harlem

Harlem RBI youth living in public housing, East Harlem

52%

Source: Harlem RBI Student Enrollment Data, May 2007

slide74
OF THOSE LIVING IN PUBLIC HOUSING, TWO-THIRDS LIVE IN ONE OF FOUR HOUSING DEVELOPMENTSLargest is George Washington Houses with 37%

Metro North

Other Public Housing

(1)

Wagner

Washington

East River

Percent of Youth, of those in East Harlem public housing

  • Other public housing includes 14 other housing developments, none of which has more than 5% of the public housing youth.
  • Source: Harlem RBI Youth Enrollment Data. Address data from New York City Housing Authority
slide75

THERE IS SIGNIFICANT OPPORTUNITY TO CONTINUE TO SERVE YOUTH IN LOWER EAST HARLEMCurrently Serving 4% of East Harlem Youth Living Below 110th Street

Data

Amount

Source

Number of youth participating in Harlem RBI programs in 2006-2007

Percent of youth living in East Harlem

Percentage of youth in Harlem RBI programs who live below 110th Street

Harlem RBI youth from living below 110th Street

Number of youth ages 7-19, below 110th street

Percent of population served

683

x 72%

x 82%

403

÷ 9,992

4%

Harlem RBI, 2006-2007

Harlem RBI, 2006-2007

Harlem RBI, 2006-2007

2000 Census

Source: Wellspring assumptions and analysis

violence in east harlem is major a concern
VIOLENCE IN EAST HARLEM IS MAJOR A CONCERN
  • Most Harlem RBI youth, alumni and parents reported increased violence as a trend in East Harlem
  • Parents, in particular, expressed deep concerns:
    • “There has been a huge increase in gang involvement…”
    • “The gang activity is rampant, and it’s bigger than it is in the news. Gangs are becoming a part of daily life… the violence is bolder and younger. They don’t care who they hit. Schools fight other schools. There’s a massive fight everyday coming out of JHS 45 and JHS 99. Even out at 116th they’re fighting. And it’s serious stuff. Guns, knives, and everything. They even threaten teachers now”
    • “Adults fear youth. You don’t just see a bunch of red bandanas anymore…with a snap of the fingers, a gangbanger can call a group of kids and then it’s a 10 on one fight… now we have shootings in broad daylight”
  • Increased violence has resulted in decreased parent involvement in community affairs
    • “For a while we were having a lot of [community] meetings but then it stopped”
    • “No one is fighting for the community anymore”
  • Parents want Harlem RBI to help address the issue:
    • “We need to educate youth to respond to gang members who approach them”
    • “Players should recruit gang members into our team. Let’s flip the script”

Source: Focus group with parents of Harlem RBI children, May 2007

table of contents7
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Project Overview
  • Research Findings Organized by Topic
    • Overall strengths and challenges
    • Identity/Name
    • Programming: Improvement and growth
    • Programming: Codification
    • Space Needs
    • Gentrification and other external trends
    • Stability over time
    • Effect of launching a charter school
interviewees offered ideas for building harlem rbi s long term stability
INTERVIEWEES OFFERED IDEAS FOR BUILDING HARLEM RBI’S LONG TERM STABILITY

Harlem RBI can make itself more stable for the future by…

  • Codifying programs, while also leaving room for continual program improvement
  • Acquiring sufficient program and administrative space controlled by Harlem RBI
  • Developing and implementing succession planning and transition plans for leadership and key program positions
  • Developing and implementing strategies to promote staff retention
  • Strengthening financial management
    • Hire a Director of Finance
  • Further diversifying funding
    • Consider an endowment
    • Increase the number of mid-level donors
  • Building more community support at the neighborhood level, not just with public officials

Source: Interviews conducted with staff and Board Members, March-April 2007

from funders perspective harlem rbi has already addressed some stability concerns
FROM FUNDERS’ PERSPECTIVE, HARLEM RBI HASALREADY ADDRESSED SOME STABILITY CONCERNS

Factors that contribute to stability cited by funders

Representative quote expressing funders’

views on how Harlem RBI is doing

Doing well

Board quality

Strategic planning

Revenue diversity

Staff depth

Staff development and retention

Reserve capital

Succession planning

“They have a great board”

“This strategic planning process seems to be addressing the right things”

“Harlem RBI has the ability to raise money from individuals and corporations”

“They need to deepen their bench”

“Their turnover is not as bad as others”

“Harlem RBI has the board and donor support to build a significant endowmnet campaign”

“Rich needs to write down what he does”

May need some attention

Source: Interviews with funders, April-May 2007

it is important to develop staff from within example bell
IT IS IMPORTANT TO DEVELOP STAFF FROM WITHINExample: Bell
  • Around 2001, BELL realized it need to hire more more experienced senior managers to oversee regional and national operations
    • “I added a senior management team. We needed a range of skills in experienced executives for Development, IT, and Programs “
  • At that time, experienced top management had to come from the outside, particularly the business community
    • The organization was young and did not have depth of experience in current staff
  • However, the transition for these external hires was difficult
    • “They think it will be a easier, but its harder. There are less resources; you motivate people differently…60% of them don’t make it”
  • Today, the organization is focused on building senior management through internal talent development
    • “We are at a new place where we would not do that [external business hires] in the future…we have outlined the whole notion of a career ladder for site managers and some other positions”

Source: Interviews with Analogous Organizations, May 2007

slide81
PUBLIC FUNDING CAN BE AN EFFECTIVEWAY TO SUPPORT REPLICATIONBut Some Have Struggled with Using Public Money Effectively
  • For BELL and Higher Achievement, certain public funding steams provide an ideal source of funds for replicating their focused afterschool models across multiple geographies
    • Supplementary education services and other academic support funding aligns perfectly with their mission and model
    • Funding can be scaled according to the number of youth served
  • BELL has been able to surmount some of the challenges of government funding by
    • Securing favorable debt financing to smooth cash flow
    • Managing government reporting both through a central staff person and at the regional level
  • As Rheedlen Centers, Harlem Children’s Zone had grown to rely heavily on public funding
    • Over time, it has reduced the government contribution to just 15%
  • Other geographically focused analogs such as Stanley Isaacs, Union Settlement and Boys and Girls Harbor say they are seeking to reduce their proportion of public funding, citing multiple challenges
    • Reimbursement methods create cash flow issues when payments are received after service is performed
    • Sudden losses of funding leave large budget gaps
    • There is a need for government relations and public reporting capacity
    • Payments may provide less per child than is actually spent by the program

Source: Interviews with Analogous Organizations, May 2007

four of seven analogs rely heavily on public funding
FOUR OF SEVEN ANALOGS RELYHEAVILY ON PUBLIC FUNDING

Total Revenue

$21.3M

$5.7M

$16.7M

$20.1M

$12.0M

$38.6M(1)

$3.7M

Private Funding

Public Funding

The four with the highest proportion of government funding attribute their size to the availability of public funding. Higher Achievement and Citizen Schools expect to grow, in part through accessing public funds

(1) Excludes Charter School

Source: Interviews with Analogous Organizations, May 2007. Boys and Girls Harbor, 2006 Annual Report; Stanley Isaacs 2005 990; Union Settlement 2005 990; Higher Achievement 2006 990; BELL 2007 data from interview; Harlem Children’s Zone 2004- 2005 Biennial Report; revenue excludes capital campaign

positions added by analogs as they grew
POSITIONS ADDED BY ANALOGS AS THEY GREW
  • Analogs added similar key senior staff positions as they positioned themselves for successful growth, including two or more the following:
    • Chief Financial Officer
    • Chief Operating Officer
    • Directors of Programs
    • Director of Evaluation
    • Director of Development
  • Analogs sometimes added one or more of the following positions:
    • Director of Education/Curriculum
    • Director of Volunteers
    • Grants Director
    • Individual donor specialist
    • Information Technology specialists
    • Government funding managers
  • Other key positions were added as relevant to the organization, including:
    • Regional Directors
    • Traveling staff for opening new sites

Source: Interviews with Analogous and Combo Organizations, May 2007

table of contents8
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Project Overview
  • Research Findings Organized by Topic
    • Overall strengths and challenges
    • Identity/Name
    • Programming: Improvement and growth
    • Programming: Codification
    • Space Needs
    • Gentrification and other external trends
    • Stability over time
    • Effect of launching a charter school
slide85
INTERVIEWEES RAISED CONCERNS RESULTINGFROM THE CHARTER SCHOOL LAUNCHYet Enthusiasm Was Expressed As Well

It will stretch the organization

It will complicate fundraising efforts

However, there was enthusiasm

  • “The organization has been in a steady growth phase…it needs to be careful not to grow too quickly”
  • “If we get a school, the growth will be the school and continuing to better after-school programs. How will after-school grow with the school?”
  • “One of our challenges is that we’ve tripled in the past four years; We’ve created new positions without much structure”
  • “The integration with the charter school will be incredibly difficult and painful…particularly when money is tight. The Board has to be prepared for that time. We will have to figure out where to make cuts”
  • “For funders, if they have to choose between youth development and education that’s tough, my sense is that they will go to the heart of it, which is education”
  • “As we try to get more government and corporate support, I’m not sure how they will respond if they think they are giving to a school and an after-school program”
  • “The education system is failing the kids - the charter school is great- there's only so much you can do after-school”
  • “Its exciting to be doing a charter school”

Source: Interviews conducted with staff and Board Members, March-April 2007

key insights from research of combined cbo subsidiary organizations combos
KEY INSIGHTS FROM RESEARCH OF COMBINED CBO-SUBSIDIARY ORGANIZATIONS (COMBOs)
  • Extending the brand of the parent organization to the subsidiary can help to both facilitate fundraising and spread the culture of the parent organization
  • Parent organizations did not not “lose” donors to subsidiaries
    • Requires thoughtful management and coordination of fundraising by the parent organization
  • Combos attained improved financial and operational capacity
    • In part by acquiring more experienced staff
  • Combos can support alignment across organizations by assigning board members from the parent organization’s board to serve on the subsidiary’s board
  • Parent organizations use a variety of approaches to convey programming to the subsidiary
  • Parent organizations can choose how to prioritize the charter school vis-à-vis their other programming
overview of combos
OVERVIEW OF COMBOs

Subsidiary

Parent organization (Type)

Combined Expenses ($M)

Expenses of subsidiary ($M)

Subsidiary as percent of total expenses

  • Good Shepard Svcs.
  • (Multi-service CBO)
  • Harlem Children’s Zone (Youth organization)
  • University Settlement (Settlement house)
  • Latin American Youth Center (Youth organization)
  • Self Enhancement, Inc. (Youth organization)
  • Northwestern University Settlement House (Settlement house)

Three alternative public school schools

Two charter schools

Teen organization

Three charter schools

Charter school

Three charter schools

$42.2M

29.1

23.3

15.3

7.6

19.5

$~3.0M

4.1

8.5

3.2

0.8

15.0

7%

14%

36%

21%

11%

77%

Source: Interviews with CBO-Combo Organizations, May 2007. Most recent 990 forms, 2005 and 2006. SEI Annual Report, 2006. HCZ, Biennial Report 2004-2005. Promise Academy 990, 2006. Harlem Children’s Zone expenses include one charter school and no capital expenses associated with the new building

how subsidiaries connect with their parent organization
HOW SUBSIDIARIES CONNECT WITHTHEIR PARENT ORGANIZATION

Parent organization

Separate 501(c)3?

Shared identity?

How fundraising is managed

Shared back office?

Shared programs?

Shared facility?

  • Good Shepard
  • Harlem Children’s Zone
  • University Settlement
  • Latin American Youth Center
  • Self Enhancement, Inc.
  • Northwestern University Settlement House

N/A (1)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Shared for fundraising

Yes

Separate, moving to more shared

Yes

Yes

Yes, but becoming separate

Shared staff

Done at parent org level

Shared staff

Separate staff, Coor-dinated

Done at parent org level

Shared staff

No

Yes

Yes

Some

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Some

Yes

Yes

Some

No

Yes

Some

Yes

Yes

Yes

(1) Good Shepard’s schools are in the regular New York City Public School System; they are not charter schools or other independent schools

Source: Interviews with CBO-Combo Organizations, May 2007. Most recent 990 forms, 2005 and 2006. SEI Annual Report, 2006. HCZ, Biennial Report 2004-2005

slide89

PARENT’S BRAND MAY BE EXTENDED TO SUBSIDIARIES TO FACILITATE FUNDRAISING, SPREAD CULTUREIn Cases Where The Subsidiary Brand Is Weak Or Non-existent

  • At Northwestern University Settlement and Latin American Youth Centers, fundraising was a primary motivation for branding the schools with the parent’s identity
  • For Harlem Children’s Zone and Self Enhancement Inc, who also have strong brands, the schools are operated as extensions of the parent organization
    • Primarily motivated by desire for shared culture and identity
  • In the case of University Settlement (US), which acquired a strongly branded subsidiary, both brands were maintained and kept distinct
    • US did not want to dilute the culture and identity of the subsidiary

Source: Interviews with CBO-Combo Organizations, May 2007

harlem children s zone continues to grapple with ensuring cultural continuity
HARLEM CHILDREN’S ZONE CONTINUES TO GRAPPLEWITH ENSURING CULTURAL CONTINUITY
  • For Harlem Children’s Zone (HCZ), the most challenging aspect of running a new organization has been the merging of the new organization into the existing culture
    • “We have a certain culture that the school does not have…there are new people coming in who have [to learn that]”
  • HCZ is currently addressing this challenge by
    • Holding meetings and retreats for staff of both organizations
    • Inviting charter school staff to HCZ events
  • HCZ advises that pre-planning for organizations looking to open a charter school should include screening for cultural fit
    • “I would just be careful about the merger of starting a charter school to make sure the culture and goals both mesh. Early on they should have discussions with potential principals and teachers to make sure people understand the culture of the organizations”

Source: Interviews with CBO-Combo Organizations, May 2007

slide91
DONORS DID NOT SWITCH FROM SUPPORTING THE PARENT TO SUPPORTING THE SUBSIDIARYA New Category of Donors Emerged
  • Most donors, both foundations and individuals, have a clear idea what they want to fund and will stick to it
    • No large donors stopped supporting one organization to support the other
    • Donors did not typically ask the parent organization to chose which entity would receive the check
  • For combos, individual donor funding levels to the parent organization were preserved
    • In part because parent organizations did not solicit them specifically for the charter school
  • Some existing donors choose to support both organizations
  • For each of the school combos, the new entity brought a different group of funders who were attracted to education, but otherwise would not have supported the organization
    • “… there are some funding sources that are into schools, as opposed to other services that we provide…you put the charter school out there when its in your interest to do it”

Requires organization to preempt potential fundraising conflicts

Source: Interviews with CBO-Combo Organizations, May 2007.

potential fundraising conflicts are managed through thoughtful coordination and policy
POTENTIAL FUNDRAISING CONFLICTS ARE MANAGED THROUGH THOUGHTFUL COORDINATION AND POLICY
  • Five of the six organizations shared development staff, so that fundraising was always coordinated
    • Harlem Children’s Zone and Self Enhancement Inc fundraise on behalf of the organization, not the school specifically
    • At Northwestern University Settlement House and Self Enhancement Inc, the individual donors of the parent organization were never solicited specifically for the charter schools
    • At University Settlement House, the Executive Director decided the parent organization would not provide programming which the subsidiary also provided, in part to minimize potential funding conflicts
  • Where development staff was not shared, the Latin American Youth Center planned to establish written baseline policies to coordinate fundraising

Source: Interviews with CBO-Combo Organizations, May 2007

combos achieve improved back office capabilities beyond just cost benefits
COMBOs ACHIEVE IMPROVED BACK OFFICE CAPABILITIES Beyond Just Cost Benefits
  • Parent organizations chose to use increased back office budgets
    • They hire more experienced staff rather than focusing on increasing the number of staff
    • Positions were added which otherwise could not be supported with just one organization
    • One combo’s perspective: “At $4M its hard to have a full IT office or HR office. When you get to larger scale its more possible. You can get more functionally specialized in the fiscal office as well”
  • The Executive Director of Northwestern University Settlement House, acknowledged that the addition of the charter schools improved the quality of back office functions
    • “The last big benefit would be the tremendously increased sophistication of our own business management and capacity. It would have gotten there, but it would have taken some time”

Source: Interviews with CBO-Combo Organizations, May 2007

placing board members from the parent s board on the subsidiary s board supports alignment
PLACING BOARD MEMBERS FROM THE PARENT’S BOARD ON THE SUBSIDIARY’S BOARD SUPPORTS ALIGNMENT
  • At Self Enhancement, Inc. (SEI), the two boards are linked to ensure the school is aligned with the parent organization's vision. The school’s Board Chair sits on the SEI Board and 4 to 5 SEI board members sit on the school’s board
    • “We don’t have a voting majority but we were not concerned about that – as long as the school’s leadership is connected back to the board there is enough influence to make sure it does not go too far in a direction we don’t want. We are still involved in things like hiring of the school personnel”
  • The boards of Harlem Children’s Zone’s (HCZ) schools are primarily composed of the board members of the parent organization; the President of HCZ is President of the Charter Schools’ Boards
  • The Latin American Youth Center did not have board members on both boards but later regretted this
    • “We tried to have overlapping board members but it was too much for the board members… they did not want to be on both boards. I think we should have the exact same board. You need to have critical mass from the board [to keep the organizations connected]”

Source: Interviews with CBO-Combo Organizations, May 2007

staffing challenges can be reduced through clear approaches for staff development and pay
STAFFING CHALLENGES CAN BE REDUCED THROUGH CLEAR APPROACHES FOR STAFF DEVELOPMENT AND PAY
  • When asked about the biggest challenges they face, Executive Directors almost invariably mentioned to staff recruitment and retention
  • The industry standard for compensation, and the lack of advancement opportunity makes it difficult to attract and retain high quality program and management staff
  • The effect is particularly acute for school combo organizations, since the staff of youth organizations are compensated at levels much lower than public school employees
    • “Good Shepard Services provides advocate counselors who work for twelve months but get 2/3 of what the Department of Education pays counselors for nine months”
  • All organizations recognized that although compensation is important, providing opportunities for staff development and advancement is just as important
    • Career pathways, staff appreciation gestures, and opportunities for training were cited as important strategies for recruiting and retaining staff

Source: Interviews with Combo Organizations, May 2007

staff may report to one organization and get paid by another
STAFF MAY REPORT TO ONE ORGANIZATIONAND GET PAID BY ANOTHER

University Settlement

Northwestern University Settlement House

Harlem Children’s Zone

  • College advisors working at the subsidiary site are fully paid for by the parent organization
    • But report to the management structure of the subsidiary organization
  • Some finance and operations staff are paid directly by the schools
    • But report to the management of the parent organization
  • Staff who provide afterschool services at the charter schools are employees of the parent
    • Report to Harlem Children’s Zone management

Source: Interviews with CBO-Combo Organizations, May 2007. Most recent 990 forms, 2005 and 2006. SEI Annual Report, 2006. HCZ, Biennial Report 2004-2005.

slide97
COMBOs CAN ANTICIPATE GREATER PUBLIC SCRUTINY DUE TO SCHOOLS’ PUBLIC NATURECaveat: May Depend on the Political Environment
  • Leadership at Self Enhancement, Inc. (SEI) and Northwestern University Settlement House (NUSH) realized their schools were subject to outside scrutiny which the parent organization did not previously have to consider
    • “It’s a different flow of dollars that makes you more of a quasi-public agency… Things like the Open Meetings Act applies to school side but not the nonprofit side. Board meetings became public. They have to be announced and you have to invite the public. The minutes are scrutinized…You become more subject to state and federal law”
    • “All school board meetings must be open to public. When the school was a component of SEI (not a separate 501c3), that meant out board meetings had to be open to everyone. Obviously we not comfortable with that”
  • NUSH’s charter school eventually retained their own legal counsel to handle contracting issues and education law

Source: Interviews with CBO-Combo Organizations, May 2007

slide98

SUBSIDIARIES USE MULTIPLE APPROACHES TO LEVERAGE THEIR PARENT ORGANIZATION’S PROGRAMMINGFour Out of Six Used At Least Two Approaches

Harlem Children’s Zone

Latin American Youth

NW University

Settlement

Self Enhancem-ent, Inc.

Good Shepard

University Settlement

Analog Organization

Parent organization delivers programming to subsidiary’s participants

Subsidiary participants attend programs at parent organization site

Organizations share program planning strategies

Parent organization places full-time program staff in subsidiary (e.g. social worker)

Youth and families informally access on-site resources of parent organization

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Source: Interviews with CBO-Combo Organizations, May 2007

slide99
PARENT ORGANIZATIONS CAN CHOOSE HOW TO PRIORITIZE THEIR CHARTER SCHOOL VIS-À-VIS OTHER WORKTwo Different Perspectives

Northwestern University Settlement House (NUSH) placed school as highest priority

Self Enhancement, Inc. (SEI) saw school as ancillary to other work

  • NUSH made an early decision to do whatever it took to support its charter school
    • Undertook capital campaign and debt to finance space for the school
    • Devoted 60% of Executive Director time to the charter school
    • Cut into cash reserve
  • While two additional charter schools were opened, other programs for the parent were maintained but not grown
  • SEI is committed to supporting its charter school and has made sacrifices to do so in the short term
    • “A lot of our unrestricted dollars are going towards the school...The time of my lead staff has been stretched…and it has certainly taken away from the regular program”
  • However, SEI is clear that the school comes second to their after-school programs
    • “Our charter school is not part of our core programs… it certainly feeds our core programs and we think it will continue to grow and flourish but if all hell broke out we would drop it”

“The school was the single largest project we had ever undertaken in our entire existence…. We said: Let’s just keep the main programs going while we’re doing this major thing”

Source: Interviews with CBO-Combo Organizations, May 2007