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  1. Why DLC • Radio signals tend to be distorted, transmission errors do occur! • Random noise • Channel fading • Interference • Physical layer does not know what to do with erred signals • DLC is handling such issue

  2. Data Link Layer • Reliable data delivery from point to point, erred frame will not be passed to the network layer • Point- to point : only interested in the data flow on the link between the two points • Reliability • Error detection • Error recovery • Two error recovery schemes • Forward error correction (FEC) • Automatic repeat request (ARQ)

  3. Three Functions of Data Link Layer Protocols A data link protocol provides three functions: • Controls when computers transmit (media access control). • Detects and corrects transmission errors (error control). • Identifies the start and end of a message (message delineation).

  4. Media Access Control Media access control (MAC) refers to the need to control circuits when devices transmit. Two types of MAC: • Polling • Contention

  5. Transmission Error Control • All transmission media have potential for introduction of errors • All data link layer protocols must provide method for controlling errors • Error control process has two components • Error detection • Error correction

  6. Error Control in Networks There are two types of errors associated with networks. • Human errors, controlled by applicationprograms • Network errors, controlled by the network There are two categories of network errors. • Corrupted data (that have been changed) • Lost data

  7. What are Network Errors? Network errors are a fact of life in data communications networks. Normally errors occur in bursts. • In a burst error, more than one data bit is changed by the error-causing condition. • Errors are not uniformly distributed, regardless of error rate statistics. Dial-up lines are more prone to errors because they have less stable parameters.

  8. Network Error • One bit error in 1000 bits results in an error rate of 0.001. However, it also means that one character made up of 8-bit is not correct. The character error rate becomes 1/125. It is 8 times of the bit error rate.

  9. Network Error The fact that errors tend to be clustered in bursts rather than evenly dispersed is both good and bad: • Good: long period error-free transmission • Bad: it is more difficult to recover the data from the errors. • I h*ve a p*ncil in my p*cket • I have a *e**il in my pocket • Give me your *oney, or I’ll ki** you.

  10. Error Detection It is possible to develop data transmission methodologies that give very high error detection and correction performance. The only way to do error detection and correction is to send extra data with each message. In general, the larger the amount of error detection data sent, the greater the ability to detect an error.

  11. Error Detection There are three common error detection methods. • Parity Checking • Longitudinal redundancy checking • Polynomial checking • Checksum • Cyclic Redundancy

  12. Error Detection: Parity Bits • Bit added to each character to make all bits add up to an even number (even parity) or odd number (odd parity) • Good for detecting single-bit errors only • High overhead (one extra bit per 7-bit character=12.5%)

  13. Parity Checking One of the oldest and simplest method, parity checking adds 1 additional bit to each byte in the message. The value of this parity bit is dependent on the number of 1’s in each byte transmitted. Even parity causes the sum of all bits (including the parity bit) to be even. Odd parity causes the sum to be odd. Unfortunately if two bits are erroneous, the parity checking will fail. Parity checking results in about a 50% reliability rate.

  14. Parity Checking Assume we are using even parity with 7-bit ASCII. The letter V in 7-bit ASCII is encoded as 0110101. Because there are four 1s (an even number), parity is set to zero. This would be transmitted as: 01101010. Assume we are using odd parity with 7-bit ASCII. The letter W in 7-bit ASCII is encoded as 0001101. Because there are three 1s (an odd number), parity is set to zero. This would be transmitted as: 00011010.

  15. Longitudinal Redundancy Checking (LRC) LRC was developed to overcome the problem with parity’s low probability of detection. LRC adds one additional character, called the block check character (BCC) to the end of the entire message or packet of data. The value of the BCC is calculated much like the Parity bit, but for the entire message. Results in a 98% reliability rate.

  16. Longitudinal Redundancy Checking For example, suppose we were to send the message “DATA” using odd parity and LRC with 7-bit ASCII: Letter D A T A BCC ASCII 1000100 1000001 1010100 1000001 1101111 Parity bit 1 1 0 1 1 (Note that the parity bit in the BCC is determined by parity, not LRC.)

  17. Polynomial Checking Like LRC, polynomial checking adds 1 or more characters to the end of the message based on a mathematical algorithm. With checksum, 1 byte is added to the end of the message. It is obtained by summing the message values, and dividing by 255. The remainder is the checksum. (95% effective) With Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC), 8, 16, 24 or 32 bits are added, computed by calculating a remainder to a division problem.

  18. Error Detection: Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) • Data in frame treated as a single binary number, divided by a unique prime binary, and remainder is attached to frame • 17-bit divisor leaves 16-bit remainder, 33-bit divisor leaves 32-bit remainder • For a CRC of length N, errors undetected are 2-N • Overhead is low (1-3%)

  19. Flow Control • Necessary when data is being sent faster than it can be processed by receiver • The simplest, most effective, least expensive, and most commonly used method for transmission error control. • Using retransmission. • Computer to printer is typical setting • Can also be from computer to computer, when a processing program is limited in capacity

  20. Stop-and-Wait Flow Control • Also called Stop-and-Wait Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) • It is the simplest form • Source may not send new frame until receiver acknowledges the frame already sent • Very inefficient, especially when a single message is broken into separate frames, or when the data link is long enough for significant delays to be introduced

  21. Error Correction • A receiver that detects an error simply asks the sender to retransmit the message until it is received without error. • Lost frame • Damaged frame • With Stop and Wait ARQ the sender stops and waits for a response from the receiver after each message or data package. • Responses are: • Error detection • Positive acknowledgment (ACK) • Negative acknowledgment and retransmission (NAK) • Retransmission after time-out

  22. Stop-and-Wait ARQ • One frame received and handled at a time • If frame is damaged, receiver discards it and sends no acknowledgment • Sender uses timer to determine whether or not to retransmit • Sender must keep a copy of transmitted frame until acknowledgment is received • If acknowledgment is damaged, sender will know it because of numbering

  23. Sliding-Window Flow Control • Also called Continuous ARQ • Allows multiple frames to be in transit • Receiver sends acknowledgement with sequence number of anticipated frame • Sender maintains list of sequence numbers it can send, receiver maintains list of sequence numbers it can receive • ACK (acknowledgement, or RR – Receiver Ready) supplemented with RNR (receiver not ready)

  24. Go-Back-N ARQ • Uses sliding-window flow control • When receiver detects error, it sends negative acknowledgment (REJ) • Sender must begin transmitting again from rejected frame • Transmitter must keep a copy of all transmitted frames

  25. Error Correction via Retransmission • With Continuous ARQ the sender does not wait for acknowledgement before sending next message. If it receives an REJ, it retransmits the needed messages. • The packets that are retransmitted may be only those containing an error (called Link Access Protocol for Modems (LAP-M)), or may be the first packet with an error and all those that followed it (call Go-Back-N ARQ) • Continuous ARQ is a full-duplex transmission technique.

  26. Packet Loss • How it could be? Two possibilities: • The receiver did not receive the packet • The sender did not receive the ACK message • What can we do with packet loss? • Use “Time-out” to detect packet loss • Re-send the packet if there is a “time-out”

  27. *Forward Error Correction Forward error correction uses codes containing sufficient redundancy to prevent errors by detecting and correcting them at the receiving end without retransmission of the original message. • Hamming code is capable of correcting 1 bit error. • More sophisticated techniques, such as Reed-Solomon, are commonly used. • commonly used in satellite transmission. • Chip implementations of FEC has been used in modems, e.g. V.34.

  28. Data Link Control Protocols • Asynchronous protocols • High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) • Ethernet and Token Ring • SLIP and PPP

  29. Six Issues in Packet Design • Error correction • Addressing • Delineation • The transparency problem • Transmission efficiency (packet size vs. bandwidth utilization ratio) • Media access control