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Two and Three Year Olds. FACS Standards 4.2.1, 4.2.2 Herr, Judy. Working with Young Children . The Goodheart-Wilcox Co., Inc. 2008. Physical development of 2 year olds. Rapid growth of infancy slows Will grow 2-3 inches in height and add about 5 pounds in weight

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two and three year olds

Two and Three Year Olds

FACS Standards 4.2.1, 4.2.2

Herr, Judy. Working with Young Children. The Goodheart-Wilcox Co., Inc. 2008.

physical development of 2 year olds
Physical development of 2 year olds
  • Rapid growth of infancy slows
  • Will grow 2-3 inches in height and add about 5 pounds in weight
  • Eyes, stomach, heart, and lungs become stronger
  • Digestive system matures
slide3

Coordination improves – less top heavy and center of gravity shifts downward

  • Can master a variety of gross motor skills 0 can run and jump without falling
  • Fine-motor skills also improving
gross motor development
Gross-motor Development
  • Improved body control and coordination – playing with a ball possible – band at waist, kick ball, throw ball
  • More control of leg and foot muscles
  • Walk up and down stairs alternating feet
  • Stand on both feet on a balance beam
slide5

Walk on toes

  • Jump off floor with both feet
  • Balance on one foot
  • Standing broad jump
  • Sit on riding toy and push it with both feet
fine motor development
Fine-motor Development
  • Finger dexterity and control
  • Insert key in lock and turn it; turn pages in a book; string beads or spools; lace cards; hold scissors; open and close scissors
slide7

Hand preference developed – will use same hand for fine-motor activities; may still switch hands for some things

  • Use writing tools to scribble at 24 months
  • By 30 months, draw horizontal and vertical lines and circles with crayon or pencil in fist
slide8

Build block towers with 6-7 blocks

  • 2 or more blocks for a train and push blocks along
self help skills
Self-Help Skills
  • 2 year olds can help in dressing
  • First can undress selves – first shoes and socks, then unsnap
  • Then can dress themselves – pull on garments, zip zippers
slide10

By 30 months unbutton large buttons, close snaps, put on socks

  • Drink from glass or cup without help
  • May spill often, but getting better
  • Drink with straw, eat with a spoon, but may prefer fingers if hurried
slide11

At 2 will begin using toilet with prompts, but accidents are common

  • Between 24 and 35 months, rare to have bowel accidents, but will continue to have wetting problems
  • By 33 months can use toilet without help
cognitive development 2 year olds
Cognitive Development 2 year olds
  • Focuses on 3 main areas:
    • Language comprehension skills
    • Expressive language skills
    • Math readiness skills
  • These areas reflect child’s intelligence
language comprehension skills
Language Comprehension Skills
  • Understanding of language
  • Receptive or inner language
  • More advanced than expressive language
  • Understand more than can speak
  • Grows rapidly for 2 year olds
slide14

“Why?”

  • Can identify 6 body parts – enjoy playing “Where are your toes? Eyes?
  • At 24 months understand pronouns – I, my, mine, me
  • Can answer yes or no questions
slide15

By 30 months can follow 2-step commands

  • Can give answers to where questions
  • Know difference between soft and heavy; size concepts developing, space concepts developing – big, tall, on, under, out of, together, away from
expressive language skills
Expressive Language Skills
  • Ability to produce language forms
  • Can express thoughts to others
  • Develops quickly following a sequence
  • Experiences affect rate and content of development
slide17

Provide an environment to stimulate language development

  • Simple two word sentences
  • 2 language strategies
    • Feeding in
    • expansion
feeding in
Feeding - in
  • Provide the child’s language
  • Tell child what they are doing
expansion
Expansion
  • Expanding their language
  • Reframe their words into sentences
slide20

Average 2 year old vocabulary consists of 50-200 words

  • Use words without understanding them
  • Girls develop language skills faster than boys
  • Don’t understand grammar enough to form questions
slide21

Make negative sentences

  • Between 27 and 30 months begin using prepositions
  • Modifiers added to language
  • Quantifiers - some, a lot, all, one
  • Possessives – mine, his, hers
slide22

Modifiers used as adjectives – pretty, new, blue

  • Between 31 and 34 months add –ed to verbs
  • Present tense verbs added – can, are, will, am
math readiness skills
Math Readiness Skills
  • Developed as children interact with one another and objects
  • Understand size concepts
  • Aware of shapes, forms, colors
  • Sort by shape and color
social emotional development of 2 year olds
Social-Emotional Development of 2 Year Olds
  • Show many negative attitudes
  • Like instant gratification
  • Find it difficult to wait
  • Because of these traits, adults will need patience with 2 year olds
social development
Social Development
  • At beginning of this stage, play along side others, but not cooperatively
  • Interested in adults, so act out adult experiences – drive a car, make the bed, talk on the phone
  • Possessive – don’t want to share, competition for toys
slide26

Use body language to express possessiveness

  • Very physical in responses – push, hit, shove
  • Don’t understand concept of sharing
  • BUT, are affectionate – hug, hold hands
  • Thrive on love and caring from adults; want to help
emotional development
Emotional Development
  • Want to control surroundings – when they can’t get frustrated and angry
  • Temper tantrums – scream, kick, cry, stamp feet
  • Not angry “at anyone”, just frustrated “at situation”
slide28

Fear becomes common – afraid of being hurt or harmed, have to do with imagination

  • Dreams scare them because can’t separate reality from dreams
  • Show love, support, and caring
slide29

Build trust and security at this time – VERY IMPORTANT

  • Regular routines helps with this
  • May need to sit by same person, too
teaching 2 year olds
Teaching 2 Year Olds
  • Their development has strong effect on way you teach and work with them
  • First observation of this age group might be that they are negative – they like the word “no;” they want their own way
  • Patience and firm guidance
slide31

Egocentric – self-centered – believe everyone sees, feels, thinks like they do; they are not selfish

  • Insist on doing things their way, their pace
  • Adults will need patience and flexibility
  • Noisy, curious, active, imitate
slide32

Like things done the same way – regular routine without many interruptions

  • Temper tantrums normal – as adult remain calm and composed while dealing with the behavior
  • May need to immobilize child or move child to safe area of room away from others
physical development of 3 year olds
Physical Development of 3 Year Olds
  • Playing is exploring
  • Moving, tasting, smelling, touching
  • Body coordination greatly improves
gross motor development1
Gross-Motor Development
  • Throwing, climbing, hopping, balancing, catching, riding and steering tricycle, balance on one foot, hop on one foot
fine motor development1
Fine-Motor Development
  • Skills continue to develop
  • Cutting skills more refined – cut across paper, cut along lines not straying too far from line
  • Begin drawing skills – shape of cross, copy a shape, trace a shape, draw faces – mouth, nose, eyes, ears – not in proportion, but in right place
slide36

Construct simple puzzles

  • Build towers of 9-10 cubes
self help skills1
Self-Help Skills
  • Increasingly self-sufficient
  • Daily routines require less adult help
  • Become better at dressing selves – open buckles, put on shoes that don’t tie, pull on pants and shirts, large buttons, have trouble telling front from back unless design on front
slide38

Able to use knives, can spread butter, jelly, peanut butter on bread, pour liquid from small pitcher

  • Almost full control of toilet routines
  • Can make it through the night without accidents – improved motor control
cognitive development of 3 year olds
Cognitive Development of 3 Year Olds
  • Thinking matures
  • Solve simple problems, but don’t think logically
  • Confused about time concepts, cause and effect
  • Learn quickly – language comprehension, language expression, and math readiness continues to improve
language comprehension skills1
Language Comprehension Skills
  • Remember and follow 3 part instructions
  • Understand pronouns – you and they
  • Understand how to answer questions with – who, whose, why, and how
  • Space concepts clearer – toward, up, top, apart, around, in front of, in back of, next to
expressive language skills1
Expressive Language Skills
  • Use more than 900 words
  • Improved grammar
  • 4 or 5 word sentences
  • Join sentences with conjunction
  • Understand past and present tense, but don’t understand exceptions to the rules
slide42

Begin understanding possessive nouns

  • Negatives not fully understood
  • Do understand – no, not, can’t, don’t, nothing, never
  • Begin using “why” and “when”
  • Talk out loud to themselves
math readiness skills1
Math Readiness Skills
  • Begin understanding full, more, less, smaller, empty, largest
  • Constantly compare objects
  • Counting begins, can count to 3 while pointing at objects
slide44

May be able to recite numbers higher than 3, but can’t count that number of objects

  • Know the difference between one and many
social emotional development of 3 year olds
Social-Emotional Development of 3 Year Olds
  • Begin growing out of temper tantrums and contrariousness
  • Become cooperative, happy, agreeable
  • Learn socially acceptable ways of expressing feelings
social development1
Social Development
  • Eager to help others
  • Learn new ways to show concern for others
  • Learn positive ways to get attention
  • Willing to accept attention of those they don’t know
  • Better able to adjust to new people
slide48

Not as possessive – like to share some, but not too much

  • Use language more to communicate with friends
  • Begin learning gender roles – not as clearly defined as in past, but still important part of learning
slide49

Understand physical differences between boys and girls

  • With proper role models, begin to learn to treat members of opposite sex with respect
emotional development1
Emotional Development
  • Strong visible emotions
  • Excited, angry, discouraged
  • Begin to understand appropriate ways to express emotions – know that adults don’t approve of temper tantrums
  • Eager to please others
slide51

No longer loud outbursts

  • Improved coordination, so less likely to become frustrated when they cannot do something
  • Likely to become angry when things don’t go their way
  • Begin developing self-concept – way one sees self
slide52

Not as likely to be afraid of things they know

  • Affectionate and seek affection in return
  • Express their feelings by watching those around them
teaching 3 year olds
Teaching 3 Year Olds
  • Typically happy, sociable, agreeable, eager to please, accept suggestions, adjust easily to new adults, classmates, and situations
  • Enjoy playing – still enjoy playing alone, but will tolerate 2 or 3 in a group
  • Will help another if they are hurt
slide54

Objects given to them will determine their dramatic play

  • Become increasingly independent – feel they need to do things for themselves
  • Provide encouraging words