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Supported Employment - The Bigger Picture Professor Mike Danson, AcSS, FIED, FeRSAUniversity of the West of Scotland+44 141 848 3936 t07948 276398 email@example.com Thursday 31 March 2011Venue - Macdonald Cardrona Hotel, Peebles
Getting the Measure of Employability: Some Evidence from Male Non-employment across the UK Regions, Michael Anyadike-Danes NIERC, Belfast, September 2002.
Now and future • Higher inactivity • North – South divide • Public cuts everywhere, private growth in south east • Capacity to support SUSE client groups reduced • LAs , NDPBs, VCS, private ... as employers, support agencies, specialist skills, • Growth dominates • Changes to benefit system
Unemployed 100K L.T.U, Drugs, Alcohol, Literacy, Mental Health, Etc Work Tight Labour Market 20K (JSA) Recession Key JSA Other Benefits (eg Incapacity Benefit) 100K Low High Job Ready
Themes of presentation Labour market does not create fair and equal access to jobs, etc. Why? • employability issues; market failures • discrimination Rationale for intervention: • varied and so need range of health, employment and development agencies • legislative (reserved powers) Who? • young & old, NEET, SUSE, EQUAL and other disadvantaged groups but long queue What? • ALMPs/ Supported Employment How? • Employability Framework and Fora; Supported Employment Framework for Scotland but sustainable funding, partnerships, priorities
Supported Employment Framework for Scotland • Raise awareness about the contribution supported employment can make to economic growth, to employment, to social inclusion and to the health and wellbeing of disabled people. • Ensure that supported employment is seen by local authorities and their partners as a valued and integral part of local mainstream employment services. • Help agencies work together to make sure that individuals are not caught in a 'training cycle' but make the transition from training to paid employment.
Individual Wider context The knowledge & skills an individual possesses & their attitudes The way personal attributes are presented in the labour market Supply The environmental & social context within which work is sought The economic context within which work is sought Demand Factors Affecting Employability
Navigation through the labour market and life? • Increasingly complex labour market • Cuts mean fewer advisors, support agencies , but welfare ‘reform’ put huge pressure on services, staff and agents to process S&D • New jobs, sheltered or supported jobs, ... • Barriers to retention, entry and sustainable employment
Barriers to Employment Supply side • unemployment incapacity benefit • incapacitated for work during their working lives (priority?) • reduced attachment to the labour market • barriers to re-engagement (Glasgow Challenge, 2003) • “soft” skills e.g. customer handling, oral communication, team working and problem solvingskills as the most difficult to source (Future Skills Scotland, 2002) Demand side • discrimination and lack of training opportunities
Barriers to Employability • low personal confidence and self esteem; • low motivation; • a lack of job related skills; • poor communication skills; and • a lack of qualifications.
CHARACTERISTICS OF WORKLESS HOUSEHOLDS • lone parent or a single adult • lacking qualifications • having a long term illness or disability • having a partner who is unemployed or inactive • Job poor and job rich households • Men and women increasingly similar • Growth ~ the secondary labour market
CONCENTRATION OF PROBLEMS • Sickness & disability • Lone parents • Low skills or lack of qualifications • Carers • Social housing ~ labour and housing market interactions • Social exclusion
All Working Some Working Workless no qualifications, sickness/ disability or lone parent 43% 68% 85% No problems 57% 32% 15% All households 100% 100% 100% All Working Some Working Workless no qualifications, sickness/ disability or lone parent 43% 28% 29% No problems 75% 18% 7% All households 57% 24% 19%
Active Labour Market Projects More than half also help with overcoming: • learning difficulties (although these are not that widespread); • child and other caring responsibilities, transport and money difficulties.
and About a third deal with problems with: • criminal records; • substance misuse; • homelessness/accommodation • mental and physical health and disabilities.
Workforce Plus Scottish progress towards employability framework - Workforce Plus Recognition of significant spend in system in siloes • Recognition that historic spend skewed towards skills training • Need for relatively greater investment in engagement, assessment, soft skills and aftercare • Recognition that problem concentrated in key areas
Structural Funds: Lowland and Upland Scotland 2007-2013 Programme Objectives ~ The strategic vision of the ESF Programme operates through three sets of Objectives, addressing market failures in the following areas: • 1. Progressing into Employment • 2. Progressing through Employment • 3. Improving access to Lifelong Learning
Target groups: Unemployed/inactive people with mental health problems, long-term illness, disabilities or learning difficulties
EQUAL in Scotland • Theme A: improving access to open labour market for disadvantaged groups • Three partnerships in Scotland: EQUAL Access, ReFocus and Equal Employability
Summary across Strategies • Stress on partnership, joined-up implementation and local ownership, greater share of investment in • engaging and supporting clients, greater investment in hardest to help, developing soft skills, joining up with local services, sustaining progression/aftercare
How? • Know how and Know-how • Resources? Public expenditure cuts, ESF reducing, charitable foundations struggling, ... • LAs, public sector, VCS = all affected by massive cuts, efficiency savings, need to show vfm, ... • Changed roles = enabler (LAs, NHS, ...?), focused (SE/HIE) , and enforcer (DWP) • VCS = contracting out and assert disposal opportunities but reduced resources and capacities
Summary: Very difficult times • Greater individual need and government demand for disadvantaged to be in work • Cuts and slow growth mean fewer posts and less protection for SUSE client groups • Greater competition for any and all jobs • Know how, what, when and why to intervene • Resources and support means being dismantled • Return to fundamentals: procurement and contract policies, living wage, LAs, NHS, Government, NDPBs, public sector, private employers, VCS • Reserved powers and creative strategies