basics of crop production l.
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Basics of Crop Production

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 82

Basics of Crop Production - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 162 Views
  • Uploaded on

Basics of Crop Production. Pest Management. Pest Control Goals. Prevention - goal when pest presence or abundance can be predicted Suppression - goal is to reduce pest population to an acceptable level

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Basics of Crop Production' - zola


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
pest control goals
Pest Control Goals
  • Prevention - goal when pest presence or abundance can be predicted
  • Suppression - goal is to reduce pest population to an acceptable level
  • Eradication - rare goal, difficult to achieve, more common indoors and controlling foreign pests
types of pests
Types of Pests

Insects Mites

Bacteria Fungi

Viruses Nematodes

Weeds Wildlife

Climate Man-made

pest identification
Pest Identification
  • As a producer, you need to be familiar with the pests that you are likely to encounter.
  • You need to know:

- the physical features of the pests

- their development and biology

- characteristics of their damage

- what your control goal is

you all know what the cricket looks and sounds like
You all know what the cricket looks and sounds like.

4

5

1

6

2

3

Insects have six legs; let’s

count them on this cricket.

how long have insects been here on earth
How long have insects been here on Earth?
  • Insects were here long before the dinosaurs, over 250 million years ago.
  • Fossils of insects show many different types of insects. Some can still be found today.
fossil records show that this insect has been around a long time what is it
Fossil records show that this insect has been around a long time. What is it?

Dragonfly

(some had wingspans of 3 ft.)

complete life cycle
Complete Life Cycle

Larva and adult are different

imported cabbage worm
Imported Cabbage Worm
  • This is an example of a complete life cycle.
  • You have seen, and eaten this worm in broccoli, cabbage, and kale.

Larvae

Adult

this monarch butterfly shows the stages of its life
This monarch butterflyshowsthe stages of its life.

Pupa

See the

butterfly?

Larva

Caterpillar

Adult

this insect is another web builder in our trees
This insect is another web builder in our trees.

Fall Webworm

It builds its nests in late summer at the end of tree branches.

N

E

S

T

this is a serious pest of our forests in the region
This is a serious pest of our forests in the region.

Gypsy Moth

People often confuse the tent caterpillar with the gypsy moth. The gypsy moth doesn’t spin a silk nest.

Adult

Larva

Egg Mass

incomplete life cycle
Incomplete Life Cycle

Nymph and adult look the same.

talk about annoying this insect is a real pest what is it
Talk about annoying, this insect is a real pest. What is it?

Mosquito

They will suck blood from their victims andcan carry diseases like West Nile Virus..

some of our more favorite insects are beneficial what is the orange beetle below
Some of our more favorite insects are beneficial. What is the orange beetle below?

The ladybird beetle adult and larvae will eat aphids, helping to control this plant pest.

Ladybird Beetle

Larva

Ladybird Beetle

Adult

Aphids

arachnids include spiders ticks scorpions and mites
Arachnids include spiders, ticks, scorpions, and mites.

Ticks suck blood from their victims and can spread diseases such as Lyme Disease.

Brown Dog Tick

Abdomen

1

5

2

6

Arachnids are different

from insects in that they

have eight legs and two

body parts.

3

4

7

8

Head

i m sure that you recognize this beautiful spider
I’m sure that you recognize this beautiful spider.

Black Widow Spider

This is a very venomous spider thatcan inflict a very painful bite.

Red Hourglass

this is the other dangerous spider besides the black widow in the usa
This is the other dangerous spider besides the black widow in the USA.

Brown Recluse Spider

They are found in the southern states and are brought here when items are moved or shipped north.

They are shy and reclusive, preferring closets and out-of-the-way places.

why control weeds
Why Control Weeds?
  • Some have been declared noxious weeds by the State. It’s the law!
  • Weeds look bad, they reflect poorly on your management.
why control weeds29
Why control weeds?
  • Weeds reduce the desirable plant population.
  • Weeds reduce overall forage quality and yield.
  • Weeds reduce overall animal yield.
disease
Disease

Alfalfa

Bacterial Wilt

disease41
Disease

Alfalfa

Anthracnose

disease42
Disease

Southern Corn

Leaf Blight

disease43
Disease

Northern Corn

Leaf Blight

Southern Leaf Blight

disease44
Disease

Diplodia Ear Rot

disease45
Disease

Corn Smut

disease46
Disease

Wheat

Powdery Mildew

disease47
Disease

Wheat

Yellow Rust

disease48
Disease

Wheat

Take-all

what are these snakes they are scary looking are they dangerous
What are these snakes?They are scary looking, are they dangerous?

Black Rat Snakes

They are non-venomous and are good snakes to have around the farm.

Baby Black Rat Snake

this is how snakes eat their food
This is how snakes eat their food.

All snakes swallow their food whole.

There are no vegetarian snakes.

Excuse me, I can’t talk

with my mouth full.

this is how you can tell the difference between venomous and nonvenomous snakes
This is how you can tell the difference between venomous and nonvenomous snakes.

Arrow

Rounder

Cat

Round

do you know this snake is it poisonous
Do you know this snake?Is it poisonous?

Copperhead

Yes, it is venomous.

Rat

Tail

recognize this snake doesn t it look a lot like the baby black snake
Recognize this snake?Doesn’t it look a lot like the baby black snake?

This is a baby copperhead.

Note the yellow tip on the tail.

It is still venomous.

Note the hour glass markings

Baby Black Rat Snake

these snakes are rare but can be found in this area what are they
These snakes are rare, but can be found in this area, what are they?

Timber Rattlesnakes

Yes, they are very venomous and are considered to be the most dangerous snakes around here.

methods of control
Methods of Control
  • Natural Control

Climate

Natural enemies

Geographic barriers

Food and water supply

Shelter

methods of control56
Methods of Control
  • Applied Controls

Resistant varieties

Biological control

Cultural control

Mechanical control

Sanitation

Chemical control

  • An integrated system uses components of all of these applied controls
the threshold
The Threshold
  • Level of pest populations at which you should take pest control action to prevent unacceptable injury.
  • A threshold may be based on aesthetic, health, or economic considerations.
  • A threshold often is set at the level at which the economic losses from the pest damage is greater than the cost of control.
potato leafhopper threshold on alfalfa
Potato Leafhopper Threshold on Alfalfa

Average stem height #hoppers/100

(inches) sweeps

___________________ _____________

<3 20

4-6 50

7-10 100

11-14 200

pest monitoring questions
Pest Monitoring Questions
  • What kinds of pests are present?
  • Are the numbers great enough to warrant control?
  • When is the right time to begin control?
  • Have the control efforts successfully reduced the number of pests?
organic low input systems rely on
Organic & Low-input Systems Rely on:
  • Sanitation - habitat, over-wintering sites
  • Eliminating, or managing nearby weeds that host pests
  • Rotations for fertility & to deprive pests of a suitable host
  • Maintain proper plant nutrition
organic low input systems rely on61
Organic & Low-input Systems Rely on:
  • Building and maintaining soil organic matter, which improves drainage and water-holding capacity

*Soil organic matter helps to support populations of microorganisms which feed on disease organisms and nematodes.

  • Encouraging indigenous beneficials
organic low input systems rely on62
Organic & Low-input Systems Rely on:
  • Importing in predators and parasites
  • Physical controls, such as flaming and row covers
  • Cultural controls, such as delayed planting, early harvesting, pruning, or mulching
  • Use of selected pesticides
insect management organically approved
Insect ManagementOrganically Approved
  • Soaps
  • Oils
  • Rotenone
  • B.T. (Bacillus thuringiensis)
  • Pyrethrums
  • Traps
  • Pheromones
  • Repellents
  • Two blocks of wood
disease prevention
Disease Prevention
  • Many factors are involved

- environmental management

- crop rotation

- sanitation

- good plant nutrition

- soil health * organic matter, drainage, tilth

- resistant varieties, seed treatment

- cultural techniques

minerals for disease control
Minerals forDisease Control
  • Copper - blights, downy mildew, black rots, anthracnose
  • Sulfur - scab, powdery mildew, brown rot, on strawberries, grapes, tomatoes, potatoes, field crops, tree fruits
  • Lime-sulfur - scales, mildews, anthracnose, brown rot on fruit trees
minerals for disease control66
Minerals for Disease Control
  • Bordeaux mix

(copper sulfate)

- anthracnose, mildews, blights, black rots on small fruits, flowers, shade trees

  • Liquid copper-sulfur - blights, mildews, leaf rust, black rot, anthracnose on vegetables and fireblight on pears
natural sprays for disease control
Natural Sprays forDisease Control
  • Fermented nettle tea (preventative)
  • Equisetum tea (root dip, foliar spray)
  • Chamomile tea (seed soak)
  • Liquid seaweed (seed & root soak)
  • Watery compost extract (preventative) - compost in soils and starting media can prevent some diseases
managing weeds
Managing Weeds
  • Organic & low-input systems rely on:

- cultivation

- giving the crop a head start

- mulches

- smother crops (cover crop)

- companion crop

- mowing

managing weeds69
Managing Weeds
  • Organic & low-input systems rely on:

- flaming

- solarization

- allelopathy

- biological controls

- chemical controls

preventing weeds
Preventing Weeds
  • Simplest & most effective approach

* sanitation is essential

* check transplant root balls

* wipe soil tilling implements clean

* keep field perimeters mowed

* do not let weeds go to seed - this includes cover crops

types of mulch
Types of Mulch
  • Plant residues - leaves, grass clippings, straw, hay, sawdust, compost
  • Living mulches - low-growing legumes, rye, ryegrass, oats
  • Man-made materials - thin plastic sheets (in colors), woven materials, Mylar, newspaper
pesticides
Pesticides

“Any chemical used to control pests”

  • Types

insecticides

fungicides

herbicides

rodenticides

miticides

pesticides73
Pesticides
  • Formulation examples include:

granules

wettable powders

dusts

dry flowables

aerosols

fumigants

pesticides74
Pesticides
  • Classifications

Caution (least toxic)

Warning (moderately toxic)

Danger, Danger-Poison (highly toxic)

pesticides75
Pesticides

Pesticides are also classified into two other categories:

  • Restricted Use

- hazardous to humans or environment

- requires Private Applicator License

  • General Use

- anyone can purchase and use these products

pesticide modes of action
Pesticide Modes of Action
  • Insecticides

stomach poison

systemic

contact

broad spectrum

selective

  • Fungicides

contact

systemic

pesticide modes of action77
Pesticide Modes of Action
  • Herbicides

contact

systemic

selective

non-selective

  • Herbicide application methods

pre-plant

pre-emergence

post-emergence

steps to selecting a pesticide
Steps to Selecting a Pesticide

1) Identify the pest

2) Try cultural, non-chemical alternatives

3) Review economic considerations

- threshold level of the pest

- what is the effectiveness of the recommended pesticides

- expense (material, labor)

steps to selecting a pesticide79
Steps to Selecting a Pesticide

4) Select the pesticide

- crop and pest must be on the label

- least toxic to man & environment

- compatibility (mixing materials?)

- Selectivity

- Residual * length of control, reentry, and days to harvest

factors affecting pesticide application rate
Factors Affecting PesticideApplication Rate
  • Soil type - heavy soils require higher rate
  • Percent of organic matter - higher O.M. %, higher rate
  • Maturity of crop - more plant material, higher rate
  • Maturity of pest - bigger pest, higher rate
  • Pest Population - more bugs, more pesticide is needed
effective pesticide application
Effective Pesticide Application

“Timing is everything, regularly walk your fields”

  • Note pest’s stage of development
  • Use appropriate labeled amount of pesticide
  • Unless otherwise noted on the label, use an adjuvant
  • Evaluate weather current & forecast
  • Alternate pesticide chemistry
thank you

Thank You

Drive

Home

Safely