Basics of Crop Production. Pest Management. Pest Control Goals. Prevention - goal when pest presence or abundance can be predicted Suppression - goal is to reduce pest population to an acceptable level
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- the physical features of the pests
- their development and biology
- characteristics of their damage
- what your control goal is
Insects have six legs; let’s
count them on this cricket.
(some had wingspans of 3 ft.)
Larva and adult are different
Eastern Tent Caterpillar
It builds its nests in late summer at the end of tree branches.
People often confuse the tent caterpillar with the gypsy moth. The gypsy moth doesn’t spin a silk nest.
Nymph and adult look the same.
They will suck blood from their victims andcan carry diseases like West Nile Virus..
The ladybird beetle adult and larvae will eat aphids, helping to control this plant pest.
Ticks suck blood from their victims and can spread diseases such as Lyme Disease.
Brown Dog Tick
Arachnids are different
from insects in that they
have eight legs and two
Deer Tick Wood Tick
Black Widow Spider
This is a very venomous spider thatcan inflict a very painful bite.
Brown Recluse Spider
They are found in the southern states and are brought here when items are moved or shipped north.
They are shy and reclusive, preferring closets and out-of-the-way places.
Phytophthora Root Rot
Southern Leaf Blight
Diplodia Ear Rot
Black Rat Snakes
They are non-venomous and are good snakes to have around the farm.
Baby Black Rat Snake
All snakes swallow their food whole.
There are no vegetarian snakes.
Excuse me, I can’t talk
with my mouth full.
Yes, it is venomous.
This is a baby copperhead.
Note the yellow tip on the tail.
It is still venomous.
Note the hour glass markings
Baby Black Rat Snake
Yes, they are very venomous and are considered to be the most dangerous snakes around here.
Food and water supply
Average stem height #hoppers/100
*Soil organic matter helps to support populations of microorganisms which feed on disease organisms and nematodes.
- environmental management
- crop rotation
- good plant nutrition
- soil health * organic matter, drainage, tilth
- resistant varieties, seed treatment
- cultural techniques
- anthracnose, mildews, blights, black rots on small fruits, flowers, shade trees
- giving the crop a head start
- smother crops (cover crop)
- companion crop
- biological controls
- chemical controls
* sanitation is essential
* check transplant root balls
* wipe soil tilling implements clean
* keep field perimeters mowed
* do not let weeds go to seed - this includes cover crops
“Any chemical used to control pests”
Caution (least toxic)
Warning (moderately toxic)
Danger, Danger-Poison (highly toxic)
Pesticides are also classified into two other categories:
- hazardous to humans or environment
- requires Private Applicator License
- anyone can purchase and use these products
1) Identify the pest
2) Try cultural, non-chemical alternatives
3) Review economic considerations
- threshold level of the pest
- what is the effectiveness of the recommended pesticides
- expense (material, labor)
4) Select the pesticide
- crop and pest must be on the label
- least toxic to man & environment
- compatibility (mixing materials?)
- Residual * length of control, reentry, and days to harvest
“Timing is everything, regularly walk your fields”