Roman Emperors. Stephen Corbitt Academic Team 2011. Early Emperors.
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Octavian: 27 BC to 14 AD. Adopted son of Julius Caesar. Ruled for 41 years (longest rule). Became known as Caesar Augustus. Ruled at time of the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. Part of second triumvirate with Marc Antony and Lepidus. After Caesar’s death he fought in a civil war against Antony and was crowned first emperor after victory. Began Pax Romana.
Tiberius: 14 to 37. Born in Rome. Married to Octavian’s daughter. Brilliant general, led campaigns across Europe. Very somber and reclusive. Jesus of Nazareth was crucified drying his reign.
Caligula: 37 to 41. Very popular, but fell ill and suffered paranoia. Had many family members banished. Tried to make his horse a consul. Eventually assassinated.
Nero: 54-68. Considered insane. Killed his own mother. Unpopular with rich, popular with poor. Accused of causing fire in 64. Persecuted Christians. Forced Seneca to commit suicide. Built fire in area burnt down by fire.
Vespasian: 69-79. Beginning of the Flavian Dynasty. Built Flavian Amphitheatre (Coliseum). Ruled during Judean revolts.
Diocletian: 284-305. Secured throne after Battle of Margus. Created tetrarchy, where the empire was spilt in half, and each side was ruled by an emperor and his deputy. Led the empire’s last and largest Christian persecution.
In 313 A.D. Tetrarchy ends, Constantine left in West, Licinius in East
Constantine: 324-337. Fought many civil wars until his rule was undisputed. Saw cross in the sky at Milvian Bridge in 312. Had his mother Helena build churches at important Christian sites. Edict of Milan allowed religious tolerance.
Theodosius I: 379-395. Last emperor to rule both halves of the empire as a whole. Made Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire. Led many military campaigns against the Goths.
Honorius: 395-423. Son of Theodosius. Decided to abandon Britain, leaving citizens there to fend for themselves against the Celts, Saxons, and others. Left the Western Roman Empire in a state of decay and on the verge of collapse.
Romulus Augustulus: 461-479. Last emperor of the Western Empire. Dethroned by Odoacer. Dark Ages soon began.