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International Environmental Affairs (GENV4111). Brad Walters, PhD Mount Allison University. General Approach.

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international environmental affairs genv4111

International Environmental Affairs (GENV4111)

Brad Walters, PhD

Mount Allison University

general approach
General Approach
  • Governance: involves the establishment and operation of social institutions, including sets of rules, decision-making procedures, and programmatic activities, that serve to define social practices and guide the interactions of those participating in these practices. (Oran Young)
  • Case Study Approach: There exists little coherent theory on international environmental affairs. Nations are relatively inexperienced, with most relevant efforts having taken place in the last 20 - 30 years.
  • Historical Perspective: Experience shows that most important advances in international environmental cooperation have been the result of lengthy and complex negotiations -- spanning years and even decades -- with incremental advances and adjustments being made along the way in response to changing contexts and opportunities.
general approach1
General Approach
  • Governance: involves the establishment and operation of social institutions, including sets of rules, decision-making procedures, and programmatic activities, that serve to define social practices and guide the interactions of those participating in these practices. (Oran Young)
  • Case Study Approach: There exists little coherent theory on international environmental affairs. Nations are relatively inexperienced, with most relevant efforts having taken place in the last 20 - 30 years.
  • Historical Perspective: Experience shows that most important advances in international environmental cooperation have been the result of lengthy and complex negotiations -- spanning years and even decades -- with incremental advances and adjustments being made along the way in response to changing contexts and opportunities.
general approach2
General Approach
  • Governance: involves the establishment and operation of social institutions, including sets of rules, decision-making procedures, and programmatic activities, that serve to define social practices and guide the interactions of those participating in these practices. (Oran Young)
  • Case Study Approach: There exists little coherent theory on international environmental affairs. Nations are relatively inexperienced, with most relevant efforts having taken place in the last 20 - 30 years.
  • Historical Perspective: Experience shows that most important advances in international environmental cooperation have been the result of lengthy and complex negotiations -- spanning years and even decades -- with incremental advances and adjustments being made along the way in response to changing contexts and opportunities.
slide5

“The whole history of international environmental action has been of arriving at destinations which looked impossibly distant at the moment of the departure”.- Tony Brenton, 1994:251

context
Context
  • last 40 years: % of world products traded has doubled
  • last 40 years: 10X increase in absolute world trade
  • last 15 years: 3X increase in air miles traveled
  • last 15 years: 6X increase in international refugees
  • last 6 years: 5X increase in private sector investments to LDCs to $250 billion per year
  • $1 trillion/day traded in int’l. financial markets
  • phenomenal increase in global communications: BBC, CNN, “Baywatch”, E-mail, INTERNET, 1 billion TV sets...
both effects causes of environmental problems often international in nature
Both Effects & Causes of Environmental Problems Often International in Nature:
  • Marine pollution: oil spills, ship-based wastes, diffusion of land-based sources
  • Nuclear: Chernobyl affected 21 countries
  • Acid rain: prevalent in N. America and N. Europe; most effects felt in countries different from source, i.e., US to Canada, UK to Scandinavia, China to Japan...
  • Depletion of the Ozone layer
  • Climate change: the BIG one of the 21st century
  • Biodiversity and forest loss: area size of France annually
  • Most major freshwater bodies (rivers, lakes, groundwater reservoirs) span more than one country
  • Trans-boundary fish stocks
both effects causes of environmental problems often international in nature1
Both Effects & Causes of Environmental Problems Often International in Nature:
  • Marine pollution: oil spills, ship-based wastes, diffusion of land-based sources
  • Nuclear: Chernobyl affected 21 countries
  • Acid rain: prevalent in N. America and N. Europe; most effects felt in countries different from source, i.e., US to Canada, UK to Scandinavia, China to Japan...
  • Depletion of the Ozone layer
  • Climate change: the BIG one of the 21st century
  • Biodiversity and forest loss: area size of France annually
  • Most major freshwater bodies (rivers, lakes, groundwater reservoirs) span more than one country
  • Trans-boundary fish stocks
both effects causes of environmental problems often international in nature2
Both Effects & Causes of Environmental Problems Often International in Nature:
  • Marine pollution: oil spills, ship-based wastes, diffusion of land-based sources
  • Nuclear: Chernobyl affected 21 countries
  • Acid rain: prevalent in N. America and N. Europe; most effects felt in countries different from source, i.e., US to Canada, UK to Scandinavia, China to Japan...
  • Depletion of the Ozone layer
  • Climate change: the BIG one of the 21st century
  • Biodiversity and forest loss: area size of France annually
  • Most major freshwater bodies (rivers, lakes, groundwater reservoirs) span more than one country
  • Trans-boundary fish stocks
both effects causes of environmental problems often international in nature3
Both Effects & Causes of Environmental Problems Often International in Nature:
  • Marine pollution: oil spills, ship-based wastes, diffusion of land-based sources
  • Nuclear: Chernobyl affected 21 countries
  • Acid rain: prevalent in N. America and N. Europe; most effects felt in countries different from source, i.e., US to Canada, UK to Scandinavia, China to Japan...
  • Depletion of the Ozone layer
  • Climate change: the BIG one of the 21st century
  • Biodiversity and forest loss: area size of France annually
  • Most major freshwater bodies (rivers, lakes, groundwater reservoirs) span more than one country
  • Trans-boundary fish stocks
general themes
General Themes
  • Ambiguous role of science and scientific information. e.g., Ozone (high influence) vs. Biodiversity (low influence)
  • Influence of public perception, civic action, and non-government organizations; e.g., Greenpeace anti-nukes and anti-whaling
  • Increasing importance of private sector: invests > $300 billion/year in LDCs vs. $50billion from ODA
  • Interplay between domestic and international politics; e.g., international action both starts from and is hindered by domestic political pressure
  • Role of national leadership, coalition building, peer sanctioning, etc. Examples:

* Canada and land mines (leadership)

* EU and climate change (coalition)

* US against Tawain over CITES (sanctions)

general themes1
General Themes
  • Ambiguous role of science and scientific information. e.g., Ozone (high influence) vs. Biodiversity (low influence)
  • Influence of public perception, civic action, and non-government organizations; e.g., Greenpeace anti-nukes and anti-whaling
  • Increasing importance of private sector: invests > $300 billion/year in LDCs vs. $50billion from ODA
  • Interplay between domestic and international politics; e.g., international action both starts from and is hindered by domestic political pressure
  • Role of national leadership, coalition building, peer sanctioning, etc. Examples:

* Canada and land mines (leadership)

* EU and climate change (coalition)

* US against Tawain over CITES (sanctions)

general themes2
General Themes
  • Ambiguous role of science and scientific information. e.g., Ozone (high influence) vs. Biodiversity (low influence)
  • Influence of public perception, civic action, and non-government organizations; e.g., Greenpeace anti-nukes and anti-whaling
  • Increasing importance of private sector: invests > $300 billion/year in LDCs vs. $50billion from ODA
  • Interplay between domestic and international politics; e.g., international action both starts from and is hindered by domestic political pressure
  • Role of national leadership, coalition building, peer sanctioning, etc. Examples:

* Canada and land mines (leadership)

* EU and climate change (coalition)

* US against Tawain over CITES (sanctions)

general themes3
General Themes
  • Ambiguous role of science and scientific information. e.g., Ozone (high influence) vs. Biodiversity (low influence)
  • Influence of public perception, civic action, and non-government organizations; e.g., Greenpeace anti-nukes and anti-whaling
  • Increasing importance of private sector: invests > $300 billion/year in LDCs vs. $50billion from ODA
  • Interplay between domestic and international politics; e.g., international action both starts from and is hindered by domestic political pressure
  • Role of national leadership, coalition building, peer sanctioning, etc. Examples:

* Canada and land mines (leadership)

* EU and climate change (coalition)

* US against Tawain over CITES (sanctions)

general themes4
General Themes
  • Ambiguous role of science and scientific information. e.g., Ozone (high influence) vs. Biodiversity (low influence)
  • Influence of public perception, civic action, and non-government organizations; e.g., Greenpeace anti-nukes and anti-whaling
  • Increasing importance of private sector: invests > $300 billion/year in LDCs vs. $50billion from ODA
  • Interplay between domestic and international politics; e.g., international action both starts from and is hindered by domestic political pressure
  • Role of national leadership, coalition building, peer sanctioning, etc. Examples:

* Canada and land mines (leadership)

* EU and climate change (coalition)

* US against Tawain over CITES (sanctions)