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Desinging the relationship between the job and the employee - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Desinging the relationship between the job and the employee

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  1. ERGONOMICS • Desinging the relationship between the job and the employee • FMJ Fitting the man (person) to the job • FJM Fitting the job to the man (person) • Getting the relationship between the worker and the job to have optimum fit will have many benifits

  2. Benefits of Ergonomics Decreased injury risk Increased productivity Decreased mistakes/rework Increased efficiency • Decreased lost work days • Decreased turnover of staff • Less cost or replacement and training • Improved morale

  3. ERGONOMICS • The word Ergonomics comes from the Greek words “Ergos”--(work) and “Namos”-- (natural law).

  4. ERGONOMICS • Desinging the relationship between the job and the employee • FMJ Fitting the man (person) to the job • FJM Fitting the job to the man (person) • Getting the relationship between the worker and the job to have optimum fit will have many benifits

  5. Benefits of Ergonomics Decreased injury risk Increased productivity Decreased mistakes/rework Increased efficiency • Decreased lost work days • Decreased turnover of staff • Less cost or replacement and training • Improved morale

  6. ERGONOMICS • Definition: • Ergonomics is the study of the relationship between the employee and the work place. It is a developing body of knowledge whose goal is to provide and maintain a healthy “user friendly” environment. Properly applied, ergonomic principles support each person's desire to find a zone of individual comfort. • FMJ will achieve the same results as FJM and is just as important in OHS

  7. ERGONOMICS • Definition: • Ergonomics (FJM) is the study of how human beings relate to their work environment. The result of ergonomics is the adaptation of the workstation design and work tools to suit the individual performing a particular job function. • The application of ergonomic principles to workstation design can result in increased effectiveness, work quality, health and safety, and job satisfaction.

  8. ERGONOMICS (FMJ) • Definition: • (FMJ) is the study of how human beings relate to their work environment. The result of FMJ is the selection and training of workers to suit the a particular job function. • The application of FMJ principles to worker selection and training can result in increased effectiveness, work quality, health and safety, and job satisfaction.

  9. ERGONOMICS The Worker (%) Men..........................34 Women......................65 Under 25 years.............11 25 to 54 years...............80 55 years and over...........7 Under 1 year of service...18 1 to 5 years..................35 5 years or more.............36 Not reported.................64 Why should we be interested?

  10. ERGONOMICS(Repetitive Stress Injuries)

  11. ERGONOMICS

  12. MANUAL HANDLING • 91% of the total cost of Nelco Product’s WC claims for 4/93 through 4/94 • Only 42 % of the frequency • This means when MH losses occur, they are usually very severe and costly

  13. OCCUPATIONAL BIOMECHANICS • Definition: • Biomechanics uses laws of physics and engineering concepts to describe motion undergone by the various body segments and the forces acting on these body parts during normal daily activities.

  14. CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (CTD’s) • Definition: Disorders that are caused or aggravated by repeated exertions or movements of the body.

  15. ERGONOMICS-RELATED INJURIES • Epicondylitis • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome • DeQuervain’s Syndrome • Ganglionic Cysts • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) • Eye Fatigue • Strains/Sprains (difference?) • Low Back Pain (LBP) • Herniated Disc • Tendinitis • Tenosynovitis

  16. CAUSES OF ERGONOMIC- RELATED INJURIES • Posture • Force • Repetition • Low temperature • Contact points • Vibration

  17. CUMULATIVE TRAUMA • Most back injuries are the result of everyday wear and tear rather than a single traumatic event. The cause is generally not a single lift but damage done over time. • Causes: • Repeated twisting • Awkward postures • Heavy lifting • Prolonged vibration

  18. ERGONOMICS-RELATED INJURIES • Epicondylitis • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome • DeQuervain’s Syndrome • Ganglionic Cysts • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) • Eye Fatigue • Strains/Sprains (difference?) • Low Back Pain (LBP) • Herniated Disc • Tendinitis • Tenosynovitis

  19. CAUSES OF ERGONOMIC- RELATED INJURIES • Posture • Force • Repetition • Low temperature • Contact points • Vibration

  20. CUMULATIVE TRAUMA • Most back injuries are the result of everyday wear and tear rather than a single traumatic event. The cause is generally not a single lift but damage done over time. • Causes: • Repeated twisting • Awkward postures • Heavy lifting • Prolonged vibration

  21. CUMULATIVE TRAUMA Once back pain is experienced, the chances of it recurring increase greatly. Back injuries from slips, trips, and falls can sometimes be prevented by good housekeeping. Proper storage of material and regular cleanup of debris can improve access not only for workers, but for materials handing equipment.

  22. To reduce back injuries on the job, a preventive program is necessary. An effective program should cover factors such as anatomy, work place posture, lifting techniques, ergonomics, and exercises.

  23. Ramazzini in 1700’s wrote: • Manifold is the harvest of diseases reaped by craftsman... As the...cause I assign certain violent and irregular motions and unnatural postures... by which... the natural structure of the living machine is so impaired that serious diseases gradually develop. (Tichauer, 1978)

  24. ANATOMY

  25. SPINAL COLUMN AND MUSCLES • Made up of bones called vertebrae • Divided into five areas: • Cervical (neck) • Thoracic (upper back) • Lumbar (lower back) • Sacrum • Coccyx • The spine provides protection to the spinal cord • The spinal cord has nerves that branch off and send messages to various parts of the body as well as bring back information on conditions throughout the body

  26. VERTEBRAE AND DISCS • Vertebrae are the bones that make up the spine. • Provide support • Offer protection • Intervertebral Discs are made up of two parts. • Outer part (fibrous ring) • Inner part (soft, gel-like center) • The discs are firmly attached to vertebrae, so cannot “slip.” • If outer fibrous ring gets damaged, part of the gel part can start protruding out, called a disc protrusion or herniation.

  27. VERTEBRAE AND DISCS • 80-85% of people over 30 have protruded or herniated discs. However, the majority do not have pain. Why? • Many theories exist, but the most widely accepted is that pain is felt when a protrusion or herniation occurs at the point where the nerve exits the spinal column. • Age has an effect. • Degenerative disc disease • May cause flattening and hardening of discs and wears on the facet joints

  28. SPINAL DISCS UNDER LOADS • Discs are continually being compressed by the effects of gravity. • our upper body • loads we might be carrying • Discs may become damaged when: • carrying uneven loads (compression) or • twisting combined with carrying (torsion)

  29. SPINAL MUSCLES Movement controlled by muscles contracting and relaxing. Rope-like ligaments join bone ends to support and strengthen joints and prevent abnormal movements Interwoven sheath of muscle and ligaments across abdomen and lower back provide support. For this reason, it is important to keep them in good condition.

  30. WORKPLACE POSTURE • Dynamic vs. static • Back muscles vs. stomach muscles • back--short, small very strong • stomach--large, broad • when imbalance occurs, back muscles can become overloaded. • thus, important to maintain health and good posture by using stomach muscles. • Unbalanced pelvis • stomach protruded • pelvis tilted down • back curve increases • stresses lower back • makes back vulnerable to injury • tightening stomach muscles will straighten pelvis, lowing spine

  31. CORRECT POSTURE • Natural alignment, follows natural curves. • Lordosis (sway back) • inward curve • neck • low back • outward curve (kyphosis) in upper back • jams vertebrae together • causes lower back muscles and ligaments to tighten and leads to low back pain • Kyphosis (flat back) • puts extra pressure on front of discs • may contribute to low back pain • Keeping spine aligned reduces everyday stresses on the back and minimizes the effects of the normal aging process on the spine.

  32. LIFTING H H • H = The horizontal distance • When H is increased, the crane’s capacity to lift the load is decreased. • This is true with our bodies as well • It is critical to lift and carry the load as close as possible

  33. PROPER LIFTING • Plan your move • Size up the load and make sure your path is clear. • Get help as needed. • Use a dolly or other materials handling equipment if possible. • Use a wide, balanced stance with one foot slightly ahead of the other. • Get as close to the load as possible. • Tighten your stomach muscles as the lift begins. • When lifting, keep your lower back in its normal arched position • Pick up your feet and pivot to turn. Don’t twist your back. • Lower the load slowly, maintaining the curve in your lower back.

  34. LIFTING GRIP Use entire palm, not just the fingertips.

  35. LIFTING DO’S AND DON’TS • DO: • Push rather than pull. • Keep a good grip. • Maintain clear vision between the object and your destination. • When lowering an object, try and keep the natural curve of your back. • Place the load on the edge (tailgate) and push it back. • DON’T: • Lift above shoulder height. • Catch falling objects.

  36. TWISTING • Repeated twisting of the lower back during lifting (or shoveling) is a common mistake. It can contribute to lower back pain and disability. Instead, lift your feet and turn you whole body. • Lifting and placing palletized/stacked materials • lift object with feet and body in same direction • pick up feet and turn with feet and body together • don’t twist

  37. MORE LIFTING TIPS • Transferring weight • pull object towards you while transferring your weight to the lift side • lift only to the level required • shift your weight to the other leg while pushing the object into position. • do not twist • Lifting heavy bags • put one knee down against bag • pull bag up leg • rest bag on edge of knee • stand upright • pull bag to waist height

  38. LIFTING OVER BARRIERS • Many back injuries result from repeated use of poor lifting techniques. Often a simple change in how we use our body to perform routine tasks can prevent back injuries and make work easier at the same time. • One-handed lifts • Lifting with the back rounded and knees straight places great stress on the spine, making the lower back more susceptible to injuries • Two-handed lifts • Again, avoid rounding the back • Move the object as close to the body as possible • Bend at the hips, while keeping the back in the normal arched position

  39. MATERIALS HANDLING EQUIPMENT Different types of equipment have been designed and manufactured to lift and move loads of various shapes, sizes, and weights. This equipment can not only save time and labor---it can save your back! Rollers, wheelbarrows, carts, dollies, and rolling tables and scaffolds can be used to handle material efficiently and reduce the risk of back injury.

  40. WORK TECHNIQUES • Benches • For bench work the right height is vital to reduce the risk of back injury or pain. Ideally the bench (work surface) should keep the work between waist and shoulder height. • Tools • Choose the proper tools for the job and repair or discard badly worn or damaged tools. • Never use cheater bars for extra leverage on a wrench. Use the right length of wrench.

  41. Engineering Controls • Workstation Design • Equipment Controls • Design of Work Methods • Tool and Handle Design

  42. Controls should be • Controls should be designed to work the way you would expect them to work • Different expectation in different cultures (cuntries) • Controls should have feedback sensations • Controls should relate to direction of display movement • Display should suit work environment • Sound of display suit ambient noise • Light to suit ambient light • Displays should be as simple as possible

  43. Displays should be as simple as possible but not confusing mistaking the tachometer for the speedometer. is the problem that in some cars, the speedometer was on the right (above) and on the other car, it was on the left (below). the speedometer and tachometer on the car below have the same numeric scale. So if a gauge shows 30, does it indicate 30 miles per hour, or 3000 revolutions per minute? The gauge above doesn't have that problem.

  44. Controls should be designed to work the way you would expect them to work Stove top controls The problem is that it is difficult to tell which control goes with which burner. The solution is to arrange the controls in the same configuration as the burners.

  45. OFF position. Water taps On position. Often used position.

  46. Water taps The main problem is that the cold water handle opens clockwise, whereas the hot water handle opens counter-clockwise. Traditionally, taps with these cross-shaped handles, both hot and cold, always open counter-clockwise Other controls turn clockwise for on

  47. Electrical switches Australia OFF USA Off

  48. Controls should be designed to work the way you would expect them to work I tried to insert it into the bill reader (See white arrow). It would not go into the bill reader! you had to first push a button (any button) on the parking permit machine. This activates the bill reader. Should parking permit machine should be designed to accept bills prior to making a ticket selection.

  49. Opening the file drawer As shown in the photo on the left, the handle on the top doesn't open the top file drawer. Instead, it pulls the whole file cabinet out from under the table, Design Suggestion

  50. Hey, which side do you use for cutting? This is a nice attractive knife. Just one problem. Which side do you use for cutting? Although you can tell which end is the handle and which end is the blade, it isn't clear which side of the blade cuts. Design suggestion The shape of an object should reveal how it is to be used.