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Offspring size, provisioning and performance as a function of maternal investment in coastal marine invertebrates. Sergio A. Carrasco. Introduction. Life histories.

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Offspring size, provisioning and performance as a function of maternal investment in coastal marine invertebrates

Sergio A. Carrasco

slide2

Introduction

Life histories

Most benthic marine invertebrate species include larval or juvenile stages specialised for dispersal and colonisation of new habitats

Morphology, developmentalstages, dispersal, mode of nutrition

  • Variation in offspringsize(e.g. latitudinal, populations, inter- and intra-especific) (Marshall and Keough 2008; Kamel et al. 2010)

Mytilusgalloprovincialis

Pinnoctopuscordiformis

Cominellavirgata

introduction
Introduction

Ecological implications

Offspring size affect the number of individuals that pass through each stage, with consequences for fitness (i.e. survival, growth, reproduction, competition)

If offspring quality is high (i.e.size or energy reserves), more offspring become successful recruits

Initial maternal provisioning

7

introduction1
Introduction

Direct developers

Reducedpotentialfordispersal

Maternal provision is the primary source of nutrition for the embryos until the juvenile stage

It has been suggested that mothers with more control of the provisioning could adaptatively adjust the allocation resources according to local conditions

results
Results

Whelk’segg capsules

Cominellavirgata

Cominella maculosa

Haustrumscobina

results1
Results

Intra-capsular development

C. virgata

C. maculosa

H. scobina

6 wk

8 wk

10 wk

results2
Results

Maternal provisioning in hatchlings

results3
Results

Hatchlingsize and performance: Growth & Dessication

Dessication (p=0.738)

Size (p=0.001)

Sites (p=0.006)

PH=MP>PHS>TR

(three-way ANOVA)

Dessication (p=0.74)

Size (p=0.01)

Sites (p=0.15)

(three-way ANOVA)

results4
Results

Hatchlingsize and performance: Survival & Dessication

Dessication (p=0.85)

Size (p>0.59)

Sites (all p=0.78)

(GLM)

Dessication (p=0.19)

Size (all p=0.0029)

Sites (p<0.05)

MP=PH>TR>PHS

(GLM)

results5
Results

Predatorsize & preyspecies

Predatorsize x preysp (p=0.036)

(two-way ANOVA)

(6-10 mm CW)

(11-13 mm CW)

(17-20 mm CW)

results6
Results

Juvenileontogeny & vulnerabilitytopredators

Predatorsize x preysp x time (p<0.0001)

(three-way ANOVA)

(1d) C. maculosa: 1.7 mm and C. virgata: 3.0 mm

(1mo)C. maculosa: 2.2 mm and C. virgata: 4.1 mm

(2mo) C. maculosa: 2.6 mm and C. virgata: 4.8 mm

results7
Results

Juvenileontogeny traits

results8
Results

Octopuses’ egg capsules

A, B. Octopushuttoni

C, D. Pinnoctopuscordiformis

results9
Results

Paralarvaltraits

A, B. Octopushuttoni

C, D. Pinnoctopuscordiformis

results10
Results

Paralarvaltraits

A, B. Octopushuttoni

C, D. Pinnoctopuscordiformis

main conclusions
Main conclusions

(1) Per-offspring maternal investment is an integral part of life-history theory with a plethora of models developed to examine the relationship between egg energy and the production and quality of offspring

(2) Regardless of the strategy, the division of finite reproductive resources should ultimately result in an optimal equilibrium between the offspring fitness and the maximization of the parental fitness

(3) Offspring size is a key trait for most organisms, influencing an individual’s subsequent performance and having direct consequences in fitness for both the offspring and mother

(4) For a wide range of taxa across a variety of habitats, individuals that start juvenile life with a large size often perform better than smaller conspecifics (e.g. growth, survival, competition, reproduction)