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Deploying Windows Server 2012: From Bare Metal, Server Core, Minimal Server Interface, and More PowerPoint Presentation
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Deploying Windows Server 2012: From Bare Metal, Server Core, Minimal Server Interface, and More

Deploying Windows Server 2012: From Bare Metal, Server Core, Minimal Server Interface, and More

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Deploying Windows Server 2012: From Bare Metal, Server Core, Minimal Server Interface, and More

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  1. WSV309 Deploying Windows Server 2012: From Bare Metal, Server Core, Minimal Server Interface, and More Andrew Mason Principal Group Program Manager Microsoft Corporation

  2. Agenda • Deployment methods and what’s new in Windows Deployment Services (WDS) • Windows Server 2012 Installation Options • Minimal Server Interface • Minimizing disk space using Features on Demand

  3. High Touch – Image Based Setup • Essentially the same as Windows Server 2008 R2 Setup • Existing scripts and deployment tools that you have for Windows Server 2008 R2 will work with Windows Server 2012 • Provides a single unified process with which all customers can install Windows • Speed improvements • IBS Setup options • Upgrade: Keep files, settings, and applications • Custom: Install only

  4. Lite Touch • Microsoft Deployment Toolkit (MDT) 2012 • Step 1: Obtain the Required Software • • Step 2: Prepare the MDT Environment • Step 3: Configure MDT to Create the Reference Computer • Step 4: Deploy Windows Server 2012 and Capture an Image of the Reference Server • Step 5: Configure MDT to Deploy Windows Server 2012 to the Target Server • Step 6: Deploy the Captured Image of the Reference Server to the Target Server

  5. Windows Deployment Services (WDS) • End-to-end solution for clean installations over the network using PXE boot • Why use WDS? • Reliable – in use since 2006 • Proven – by external and internal customers • Scalable – can deploy over 300 machines at a time • Powerful – flexible and extensible • Simple – improved manageability

  6. WDS Deployment Process Plan, manage, diagnose Boot with PXE Get into WinPE Apply full OS image Inject drivers First boot and OOBE Standalone mode MMC improvements WDS infrastructure to customize Diagnosability enhancements

  7. Standalone Mode • Standalone server • New server configuration option • Decoupled from Active Directory • Local data store • Works with management tools • MMC GUI snap-in and WDSUtil command line tool

  8. MMC Improvements • Device management now in the MMC • Client Unattend file generator • New server properties options • Max TFTP block size • UDP port policy • Image priority • Expected Deployment Results wizard • See the results of your choices before you deploy • Presents the deployment options for a certain device • Included in the MMC and also available from the command line

  9. WDS and Metadata • A new extension model for WDS • WDS infrastructure for custom deployments • Exposed in UI • Additional low-level metadata configuration using WDSUtil • Management possibilities with metadata • Generic device management • Device groups • Boot/install image filtering

  10. Diagnose Your Deployments • Server trace log updates • ETW-based logs • Support for /trace parameter • Setuperr.log/Setupact.log still available • Performance counters • Provides better understanding of what the server is “doing” • Added many for Windows 8 – now over 50

  11. WDS Deployment Process Plan, manage, diagnose Boot with PXE Get into WinPE Apply full OS image Inject drivers First boot and OOBE WDS Server is configured and ready Server PXE boots WDS Server responds with boot program x86 UEFI support IPv6 PXE support

  12. x86 UEFI and IPv6 PXE Support • UEFI 2.3.1 support • PXE extended to x86 UEFI architecture • Separate settings for BIOS and UEFI • IPv6 support for PXE • UEFI requires firmware support in UNDI and UEFI version (2.3.1 or later) • Requires stateful DHCPv6 • IPv6 is also supported in TFTP, multicast, WDS client, and setup.exe

  13. WDS Deployment Process Plan, manage, diagnose Boot with PXE Get into WinPE Apply full OS image Inject drivers First boot and OOBE TFTP transfer of boot and OS loader Variable-size transmission window TFTP shared UDP port allocation TFTP shared client buffer

  14. TFTP Download Enhancements • Dynamically determined variable-size transmission window • Tripled performance on Gb networks from ~8 MB to ~20-30 MB per second • Accommodates clients with “small” NIC buffers • Shared UDP port allocation • Improves scalability - Uses 16 ports by default • Adds performance counters • Shared client buffer • Detects clients downloading the same file • Uses shared in-memory buffer of the file for all clients • Reduces memory use and improves performance • Adds performance counters

  15. WDS Deployment Process Plan, manage, diagnose Boot with PXE Get into WinPE Apply full OS image Inject drivers First boot and OOBE In-place WIM multicast apply Multicast performance improved VHDX apply WDS is running in WinPE Apply of image begins

  16. In-place WIM Multicast Apply • What it does • Eliminates download of the WIM before applying to the local disk • Allows the WIM to be decompressed on-the-fly as received over the network • Why it’s good • Faster process that uses a smaller disk footprint • What’s needed to use it? • Minimum of 2 GB RAM

  17. Multicast Performance Improved • Smaller block size by default • Eliminates fragmentation • Higher MC transmission rate on Gb network • New congestion control algorithm • More concurrent operations on both the server and client sides

  18. VHDX Apply • What it does • Applies VHDX file directly to disk using sector-based deployment • Multiple-partition deployment for OS & recovery partition in single image • Must use VHDX format, not VHD • WDS does not create the VHDX • Available for • WDSMCast.exe and WDSClient.exe

  19. Windows Server 2012 Deployment Options • Server Core • The default deployment option • RSAT for remote GUI management • PowerShell support achieves critical mass with 2300+ cmdlets • More roles and features available • Server with a GUI • Equivalent of full Server in Windows Server 2008 R2 • Provided for backwards compatibility

  20. Windows Server 2012 Configuration Levels • Classic “Full Server” • Full Metro-style GUI shell • Install Desktop Experience to run Metro-style apps Server with a GUI Minimal Server Interface • NEWFull Server without Server Graphical Shell • No Explorer, Internet Explorer or associated files • MMC, Server Manager, and a subset of Control Panel applets are still installed • Provides many of the benefits of Server Core for those applications or users that haven’t yet made the transition Server Core • Server Core • NEWCan move between Server Core and Full Server by simply installing or uninstalling components

  21. Transitioning between Server Core and Server • Server Manager • Remote only to go from Server Core to Server • PowerShell

  22. Transitioning with Server Manager: PS cmdlets • Full Server to Server Core • Server Core to Full Server • POWERSHELL • Uninstall-WindowsFeatureServer-Gui-Mgmt-Infra -Restart Single reboot required to restart all services • POWERSHELL • Install-WindowsFeatureServer-Gui-Mgmt-Infra,Server-Gui-Shell -Restart NEWCan install multiple features with one command by separating with commas

  23. demo Transitioning between Server Core and Server with a GUI

  24. Minimal Server Interface • It’s a Server with a GUI… • …but without Windows Explorer and Internet Explorer • Provides some of the benefits of Server Core for those products or admins that can’t fully make the transition to Server Core • Enables administrators and developers to begin shifting to support headless servers • Remove dependencies on Shell and Internet Explorer • Enable full remote management • Higher availability

  25. Converting to and from Server Graphical Shell • Server Manager • Uninstall Server Graphical Shell: • Install Server Graphical Shell: • Server Core to Minimal Server Interface • POWERSHELL • Uninstall-WindowsFeatureServer-Gui-Shell-Restart • POWERSHELL • Install-WindowsFeatureServer-Gui-Shell-Restart • POWERSHELL • Install-WindowsFeatureServer-Gui-Mgmt-Infra-Restart

  26. Limitations of the Minimal Server Interface (1/2) • Common Dialog box is functional (except networking) • Any UI with dependencies on items implemented as Shell Namespace Extensions will not work • Certain CPLs are namespace extensions, e.g. Networking • Internet Explorer is not available when Server Graphical Shell is uninstalled • Links in UI won’t work • Help isn’t available – calls to HTML Help API will return NULL!

  27. Limitations of the Minimal Server Interface (2/2) • Some file associations and protocol handlers are not available • http:// • file:// • *.chm • Some DLL files not installed • Check for dependencies or delay loads might fail! • DUMPBIN (Windows SDK) • Dependency Walker (, freeware) • Test your applications on the Minimal Server Interface!

  28. Detecting the state of Server Graphical Shell • Using the Registry • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Server\ServerLevels • WMI • Win32_ServerFeature class can be used to determine installed roles and features • • Server-Gui-Shell has an ID of 99 • Server-Gui-Mgmt-Infra has an ID of 478

  29. Local Shell Capabilities

  30. demo Minimal Server Interface

  31. Reducing on Disk Footprint • All Roles and Features are copied to the Windows Side by Side store (\windows\winsxs) during Setup • Uses disk space to store roles and features that may never be installed • Windows Server 2012 now has Features on Demand • Allows an administrator to remove unneeded roles and features • Files for removed roles and features are deleted from the Side by Side store • Can be used to minimize VHD footprint •

  32. Server Core Installation Option • Server Core installation option is created using Features on Demand • Unsupported Roles and Features are removed from \windows\winsxs to maintain minimal footprint • Show as Removed in PowerShell • Show as Payload Removed in Dism.exe

  33. Removing Roles and Features • Files for <FeatureName> will be deleted from the \windows\winsxs folder • Must use PowerShell, remove is not available in Server Manager • POWERSHELL • Uninstall-WindowsFeature <FeatureName> -Remove

  34. Sources for Removed Roles and Features • Reinstallation Sources • Windows Update • If server has Internet access, it can use WU • Use the WIM directly • Mount WIM • Can mount the install WIM • Running Server’s \windows\winsxs folder • Location can be specified via Group Policy: • Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > System > “Specify settings for optional component installation and component repair”

  35. Mounting the WIM • Create a folder to mount the WIM in: • Determine the index of Server with a GUI: • Mount the WIM: • Install role or feature: • CMD • mkdirc:\mountdir • CMD • Dism /get-wiminfo /wimfile:<drive>:sources\install.wim • CMD • dism /mount-wim /WimFile:<drive>:\sources\install.wim /Index:<#_from_step_2> /MountDir:c:\mountdir /readonly • POWERSHELL with mounted WIM • Install-WindowsFeatureServer-Gui-Mgmt-Infra,Server-Gui-Shell –Restart –Source c:\mountdir\windows\winsxs

  36. Using the WIM Directly • Determine the index of Server with a GUI: • Install role or feature specifying a source of WIM:<path>:<#_from_step_1> • CMD • Dism /get-wiminfo /wimfile:<drive>:sources\install.wim • POWERSHELL • Install-WindowsFeatureServer-Gui-Mgmt-Infra,Server-Gui-Shell –Restart –Source wim:<drive>:\sources\install.wim:4

  37. Reinstalling Roles and Features • Server Manager • PowerShell • POWERSHELL • Install-WindowsFeature<FeatureName> -Source <Source>

  38. Server Core Installation Option to Server • If Server Core was installed using Setup converting to Server requires a source • With a mounted WIM • Using the WIM directly • POWERSHELL with mounted WIM • Install-WindowsFeatureServer-Gui-Mgmt-Infra,Server-Gui-Shell –Restart –Source c:\mountdir\windows\winsxs • POWERSHELL • Install-WindowsFeatureServer-Gui-Mgmt-Infra,Server-Gui-Shell –Restart –Source wim:d:\sources\install.wim:4

  39. demo Reducing Disk Footprint with Features on Demand

  40. .NET 3.5 and Features on Demand • Not included in the Windows Server 2012 image • Application Compatibility shim will prompt to install if running an application that requires .NET 3.5 • Installation sources • Windows Update • Install media \sources\sxs • Whitepaper on .NET 3.5 in Windows Server 2012 • • • Covers Client and Server

  41. SIA, WSV, and VIR Track Resources Talk to our Experts at the TLC #TEWSV309 Hands-On Labs DOWNLOAD Windows Server 2012 Release Candidate DOWNLOAD Microsoft System Center 2012 Evaluation

  42. Resources Learning TechNet • Connect. Share. Discuss. • Microsoft Certification & Training Resources • Resources for IT Professionals • Resources for Developers •

  43. Evaluations Submit your evals online

  44. © 2012 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.