课程综述 1 课程主要内容：发盘函写作 2 课程主要目的：使学生能独立书写合格、规范 的发盘函 3 与其他课程的关系：本课程属于国际贸易课程 的函电部分 4 教学方法： 教师讲授，案例分析，范文演示
目 录 交易磋商程序 发盘 发盘函写作
交易磋商程序 在国际贸易中，买卖双方通过洽商，就各项交易条件取得一致协议后， 交易即告达成，买卖双方当事人即存在合同关系。 在国际货物买卖合同商订过程中，一般包括询盘(Inquiry)、发盘 (Offer)、还盘(Counter Offer)和接受(Acceptance)四个环节，其中发 盘和接受是达成交易、合同成立不可缺少的两个基本环节和必经的法律 步骤。
发盘 1．发盘的含义 发盘又称发价或报价，在法律上称为要约。根据《联合 国国际货物销售合同公约》第14条第1款的规定：“凡向一个 或一个以上的特定的人提出的订立合同的建议，如果其内容 十分确定并且表明发盘人有在其发盘一旦得到接受就受其约 束的意思，即构成发盘。”发盘既可由卖方提出，也可由买方 提出，因此，有卖方发盘和买方发盘之分。后者习惯上称为 递盘(Bid)。 发盘 买方发盘 卖方发盘
发盘 2．构成发盘的要件 1）发盘内容必须十分确定 2）表明经受盘人接受发盘人即受约束的意思
1 2 3 发盘函写作 1．一项发盘函一般包括以下几部分（Parts of an offer） In the middle part, state all the terms and conditions in a complete, clear and definite way. In case of a firm order, the validity must be exactly stated. In the first part, acknowledge the enquiry and thank for the buyer’s interest in your products, and also indicate the writing date of it. In the last part, express the hope that the offer will be to the buyer’s satisfaction and accepted.
发盘函写作 2. 常用词汇 / Terms Firm offer 实盘 Non-firm offer 虚盘 Validity 有效期 Confirmation 确认 Acceptance 接受 Article No. / Item No. 货号 Unit price 单价 Total amount 总金额 Specification 规格
发盘函写作 3．常用句型/ Sentence Patterns 句型1：感谢对方的来函 We thank you for your enquiry of May 10 for 500 tons of groundnuts. In reply to your enquiry for walnuts, we offer you 500 tons of walnuts as follows: With reference of your enquiry of July 10th, we shall be pleased to supply 50 sets of scanner at the price of USD110 each.
发盘函写作 句型2：报价 We offer you 5 tons frozen fish at USD500 per ton CIF EMP. We are making you an offer for 500 dozen Men’s shirts at USD80 per dozen CIF San Francisco for shipment in May. We offer, subject to your reply reaching here on or before May 5th, 500 Good Baby bicycles at USD35 per set CIF New York for shipment in July. We quote you our best prices for the following goods, and shall be pleased if you can favor us with your orders. The quotation we offer you at exceptionally low prices are subject to reply by return of post.
发盘函写作 句型3：支付条款 We require payment by irrevocable L/C payable by draft at sight to be opened 30 days before the time of shipment. Payment is to be made by irrevocable L/C at sight to be opened in our favor 句型4：装运 Shipment is to be made/effected in May. We will deliver the goods within 30 days after receipt of your L/C but specific time is fixed upon receipt of your official order. The goods will be shipped within 3 months upon receipt of your relative L/C.
发盘函写作 句型5：发盘有效期 This offer is valid for 3 days. The offer is subject to our final confirmation. The offer is subject to the reply reaching here before of May 23. Our offer will be withdrawn if not accepted within 14 days The prices quoted will apply only to orders received by September 30th.
发盘函写作 4．练习/Exercises 1）连线 A Prevailing price 满足某人要求 B Upward tendency 报实盘 C As requested 最后确认 D Be in urgent need of 现行价 E Make a firm offer 以……为条件 F Meet one’s requirement 上涨趋势 G Be subject to 急需 H Enjoy fast sales 按要求 I Final confirmation 畅销
发盘函写作 2）请根据客户来函要求，写一封发盘信，详细回答客户提出的问题，告知对方交易的基 本条件，并敦促对方尽快做出决定，发盘有效期为三天。 交易的基本条件： （1）保险：按发票金额加成10%投保一切险和战争险。 （2）支付方式：即期信用证。 （3）装运：五月底装运。 信函日期：2003年3月12日 客户来函： LIDA TRADING CO.LTD. NO.1267 EAST NANJING ROAD SHANGHAI, CHINA FAX: 021-64042588 Dear Sirs, We have received your letter together with your catalogues. Having thoroughly studied the catalogues, we find that your Telecontrol Racing Cars Art. No. 18812, 18814, 18817 and 18819 are quite suitable for our market. We may need one 20' FCL each for JANUARY delivery. Please kindly inform us if you are able to supply and quote us your most favorable price for the above goods on the basis of CIFC3 NEWYORK with details, including packing, shipment, insurance and payment.Your immediate attention will be highly appreciated. With best regards! Yours faithfully, DRAGON TOY CO. LTD. Charles Borgat MANAGER
发盘函写作 参考范文： 利 达 贸 易 有 限 公 司 LIDA TRADING COMPANY LIMITED 地址：中国上海南京东路1267号 &传真：021－64042588 ADD:NO.1267 EAST NANJING ROAD, SHANGHAI, CHINA FAX: 021-64042588 March 12nd 2003 DRAGON TOY CO., LTD 1180 CHURCH ROAD NEWYORK, PA 19446 U.S.A. Dear Sirs, Thank you for your enquiry of March 7th, 2003. We are very glad to learn that you are interested in our products. Recently we have received a large number of orders from our clients and it seems that the demand is still increasing. We hope the same thing will happen in your market and are very glad to quote as follows: Commodity: Telecontrol Racing CarART.NO.18812 USD20.99 /PIECE CIFC3 NEW YORK ART.NO.18814 USD22.45 /PIECE CIFC3 NEW YORKART.NO.18817 USD23.75 /PIECE CIFC3 NEW YORK ART.NO.18819 USD24.89 /PIECE CIFC3 NEW YORK Packing: ART. NO.18812 & 18819 to packed in cartons of 12 pieces eachART. NO.18814 & 18817 to packed in cartons of 20 pieces each one 20' FCL for each Art. No. Shipment: Shipment is to be effected within 30 days of the receipt f the relevant L/C, but not later than May 31, 2003. Insurance: To be covered by the seller for 110% of total invoice value against all risks and war risks. Payment: By irrevocable sight letter of credit for full amount of the invoice value. This quotation is valid for 3 days and we are looking forward to receiving you order. Best regards! Yours faithfully, LIDA TRADING CO., LTD XXX MANAGER
发盘函写作 写作注意事项/Writing notice： 列明交易的主要条件。 仔细阅读对方的询盘，回复客户的提问和提出的条件 Useful sentences 1、准确阐明各项主要交易条件： 1）For xxx, the best price is USD78.00 per set FOB Shanghai. 2）The minimum quantity is one 20’s FCL and with the purchase of two or more containers, the price is reduced by 2%. 3）Delivery is to be made within 45 days after receipt of order. 4）Our usual terms of payment are by confirmed irrevocable L/C available by draft at sight. 5）The insurance shall be effected by the seller covering the invoice value plus 10% against WPA.
发盘函写作 2、声明此发盘的有效期及其他约束条件： 1）This offer is（remains） valid（good） for ten days. 2）The quotation is for acceptance within two weeks. 3）This offer is subject to our final confirmation. 3、鼓励对方订货并保证供货满意： 1）We hope you will agree that our prices are very competitive for these good quality clothes, and we look forward to receiving your initial order. 2）As we have been receiving a rush orders now, we would advise you to place your order as soon as possible. 3）This favorable offer will not be repeated for some time, and we according look forward to early order from you.