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Engage: Viruses ( chapter 19, section 2) – from 4-12-13. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4sYSyuuLk5g http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpj0emEGShQ. Vocabulary to know ( will check in journal)- from 19-2 ONLY Virus Capsid Bacteriophage Lytic infection Lysogenic infection Influenza virus

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engage viruses chapter 19 section 2 from 4 12 13
Engage: Viruses ( chapter 19, section 2) – from 4-12-13



Vocabulary to know ( will check in journal)- from 19-2 ONLY

  • Virus
  • Capsid
  • Bacteriophage
  • Lytic infection
  • Lysogenic infection
  • Influenza virus
  • TMV ( tobacco mosaic virus)
  • Retrovirus
4 15 13 monday
4-15-13 Monday

Biology: demonstrate an understanding of viruses

  • Notes ( Viruses) – power-point , journals and Graphic Organizer ( virus side only today !) Chapter 19, Sec 2
  • Closure: Reminders


Project Due on 4-17-13

Extra Credit #4 due on or before 4-18-13 ( no extensions)

Vocabulary quiz tomorrow

Bacteria, Protist, and Virus test this Thursday, 4-18-13

YOU determine if you keep a zero OR a failed test grade…..take care of it!

what viruses mean to you

Interest Grabber

What Viruses Mean to You
  • If you have ever had a cold, you are probably familiar with the word virus. It is a word that makes most people frown.

1. What do you think of when you hear the word virus? Make a list of all the words you can think of that relate to viruses.

2. What are two things that you would like to find out about viruses?

( answers only in your journal)

viruses copy down and answer after lecture
Viruses ( copy down and answer after lecture)
  • Is acquired immune deficiency syndrome a virus?
  • How do viruses enter the body?
  • How do viruses enter the cells?
  • What could prevent our cells from getting a virus?
what is a virus page 483
What is a Virus?(page 483)
  • Viruses-are particles of nucleic acid , protein, and sometimes lipids
  • They can only live by infecting living cells
  • Viruses are composed of DNA or RNA and a capsid- a virus protein coat.








Tail sheath

Tail fiber





Figure 19-9 Virus Structures

3 Virus Types

Section 19-2

Tobacco Mosaic


T4 Bacteriophage

Influenza Virus

viral infections
Viral Infections
  • Virus must bind specifically to a compatible protein coat.

-Animal viruses only infect animals

prions-short for protein infected has no DNA or RNA (damages cell tissue)

-Plant viruses only infect plants

viroids-single stranded RNA w/o a capsid (stunts plant growth)

-Some viruses can infect bacteria. When this happen it is called a bacteriaphage.


types of viral infections
Types of Viral Infections
  • Lytic Infection (virulent)- a virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst.
  • Lysogenic Infection (temperate)- a virus integrates its DNA of the host cell and the viral genetic information replicates along with the host cell.

Lytic: In the lytic stage, many viral particles are made and copies are sent back into the environment.A virus is found in this phase when conditions are favorable.

The virus attaches to bacteria (host)

The virus inserts its DNA into the bacteria

The virus takes over the cell's machinery

The virus reproduces itself and self-assembles. 

The host cell is destroyed


Lysogenic In the lysogenic phase there is no pathology.   Under certain conditions the lysogenic lifestyle can switch to a lytic lifestyle

The virus binds to bacteria (host)

The virus inserts its DNA into the bacteria

The viral DNA gets incorporated into the cell's chromosome.

Viral DNA is replicated along with chromosomal material

diseases caused by viruses
Diseases caused by Viruses
  • How viruses affect humans

-viruses attack and destroy cells in the body.

-some viruses can infect cells to change their patterns of growth and development.

diseases caused by viruses1
Diseases caused by viruses
  • Common cold
  • Influenza
  • Smallpox
  • Warts
  • AIDS
  • Chickenpox
  • Measles
  • Hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • West Nile
  • Polio
preventing viruses
Preventing Viruses
  • Viruses are not killed by antibiotics
  • The best way to be protected against viruses is prevention


virus review
Virus Review
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wLoslN6d3Ec
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kYf_Sl8W3qY
under the microscope
Under the Microscope

Section 19-1

  • Microorganisms are living things that can only be seen through a microscope. Imagine that you have just discovered a new microorganism. The first thing that you want to do is to tell the scientific community all about your new discovery.

1. Describe your microorganism in detail.

2. Describe its habitat.

3. Classify your organism by giving it a species and genus name you created.

4 16 13 tuesday
4-16-13 Tuesday

Demonstrate an understanding that Bacteria can be both harmful and beneficial; that it can become anti-biotic resistance, and understand its strucutre, function, and characteristics

  • Chapter 19, Section 2 Vocabulary quiz ( 10min)
  • Notes: Bacteria ( 8-10min)- Complete Graphic Organizers at home by this Thursday! The web quest behind the virus sheet will AIDE you, however it is extra credit that will one lowest daily grade.
  • Lab: Virus and Helpful Bacteria micro-viewers) – 32-34min
  • Clean up Area ( 3 min)


Check the assignment due date board daily!!

Projects due TOMORROW!

TEST: Thursday ( bacteria, protist, and viruses)

Extra Credit #4 due Thursday 4-18-13


Bacteria can survive in extreme conditions. Like this volcanic hot springs.

  • Prokaryotes-are commonly called bacteria because they are single celled organisms that lack a nucleus.

-Prokaryotes are broken into 2 very different Kingdoms

  • Eubacteria-commonly found everywhere.
  • Archaebacteria-usually found in unlivable enviroments (hot springs and oxygen free enviroments).
3 ways to identify prokaryotes
3 Ways to Identify Prokaryotes

1.Shape(3 types)

Bacilli(rod shaped) Spirilla(spiraled corkscrewed)


2 cell wall
2. Cell wall
  • Material used to make a gram stain

-Crystal Violet solution

-Lugols soulution(iodine)


-Safrain solutions

Gram positive(purple) Gram negative(pink)

3 movement
3. Movement




-Spiral forward

-Slide on a layer of mucus


how prokaryotes obtain energy and relaese energy
How Prokaryotes Obtain Energy and Relaese Energy
  • Hetertrophs- take in organic molecule for both energy and a supply of carbon.
  • Autotrophs-take in sunlight as well as organic compounds for energy.
  • Obligate Aerobes- require a constant supply of oxygen to live
  • Obligate Anaerobes- they must live in the absence of oxygen to survive.
  • Facultative Anaerobes- can live with or without oxygen.
prokaryotic growth and development
Prokaryotic Growth and Development
  • Binary fission-a bacteria

replicated it DNA and divides

in half.

  • Conjucation-bacteria exchange

genetic information by forming

a bridge b/t 2 bacteria cells

  • Spore formation- is when

bacteria form a thick internal

wall protecting it from unfavorable

living conditions

Anthrax forms spores

importance of bacteria
Importance of Bacteria
  • Decomposers-breaks down

the nutrients in dead matter

  • Nitrogen Fixers-Converts

nitrogen gas to ammonia

for plant usage.

  • Helpful to Humans-breaks down food in the intestines
dieseases caused by bacteria
Dieseases caused by Bacteria
  • How do bacteria affect humans?
  • Some bacteria damage the cells and tissues of the infected organism directly by breaking down the cells food
  • Other bacteria release toxins that travel throughout the body interferring with the normal actvity of the host
diseases caused by bacteria page 486

Common Diseases Caused by Bacteria

Diseases caused by bacteria(page 486)

Section 19-3




Regular dental hygiene

Protection from tick bites

Current tetanus vaccination


Proper food-handling practices

Maintaining good health

Clean water supplies

Tooth decay

Lyme disease



Salmonella food poisoning



Streptococcus mutans

Borrelia burgdorferi

Clostridium tetani

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Salmonella enteritidis

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Vibrio cholerae

controlling bacteria
Controlling Bacteria
  • Disenfectants
  • Antibiotics
  • Sterializing by heat
  • Consuming unspoiled foods
4 17 13 wednesday
4-17-13 Wednesday!!!

Demonstrate an understanding of the Kingdom Protista; continue to understand the differences between a bacteria and a virus.

  • Notes: Protista ( 15-20 min)
  • Finish Virus and Bacteria Lab ( 30-35 min) – self directed learning, but DO ask for help when needed!
  • Submit Lab/ Clean up Station ( 5 min)


Test tomorrow! ( ONLY bacteria and virus notes!)

Check 4-18-13 due! ( journal, bacteria and virus graphic organizers)


the kingdom of protista

The kingdom of Protista

The first protist was discovered over 1.5 billion year ago now including over 200,000 species.

how protist are classifyied
How protist are classifyied
  • Animallike protist (protozoans)
  • Plantlike protist (unicelluar algae)
  • Funguslike protist
animallike protist protozoans
Animallike Protist: Protozoans
  • Zooflagellates

-swim using one or two flagella

  • can absorb nutrients through their cell membrane from decaying organic material
  • Many live in lakes and streams
  • Most reproduce asexually by mitosis other animal-like protist can reproduce sexually by meiosis.
animallike protist protozoans1
Animallike Protist: Protozoans


-moves and feed using cytoplasmic

-projections known as pseudopods

or false feet.

Example of Sarcodines

  • Ameobas-can surrond then digest their meals storing the food in a food vacuole- a small cavity in the cytoplasm that temporaily store food.
animallike protist protozoans2
Animallike Protist: Protozoans
  • Ciliates(Ciliophora)

- uses cilia for feeding and movement

  • cilia are short hairlike projection used

for movement similar to flagella

  • Found in fresh and salt water
  • Can reproduce by conjucation-exchanging

genetic information by attaching to another


  • Example of a Ciliphora is a Paramecium

-Trichocysts used for defense

-Macronuclues carries all genetic

information needed for day to day


-Micronucleus is a reserve copy

of all the cells genes.

animallike protist protozoans3
Animallike Protist: Protozoans
  • Sporozaons(Sporozoa)
  • Are parasitic and can not move on their own(infecting birds, worms, fish and humans)
  • Reproduce by sporozoites attaching itself to a host cell , penetrates it, and then lives with in the cell as a parasite.
  • Can cause Malaria(mosiquitos) and African sleeping disease(tsetse fly).
plantlike protist unicellular algae
Plantlike Protist: Unicellular Algae
  • How does algae at the bottom of the ocean get sunlight to carry out photosynthesis?
  • using accessory pigments

absorb light at different

wavelenghts than

chlorophyll giving algae

many different colors.

4 types of plantlike protist unicellular algae
4 types of Plantlike Protist: Unicellular Algae
  • Euglenophytes(Euglenophyta)
  • are plant like protist with two

flagella and no cell wall.

  • Reproduce asexually by binary fission
  • Can be autotrophs using the eyespot to find sunlight
  • Can be heterotrophs absorbing nutrients from decaying organic material
  • Chrysophytes(Chrysophyta)
  • includes yellow-green algae and brown algae
  • Stores food in the form of oil
  • Reproduce asexually and sexually
4 types of plantlike protist unicellular algae1
4 types of Plantlike Protist: Unicellular Algae
  • Diatoms(Bacillariophta)
  • Produce thin delicate cell walls

rich in silicone the main

component of glass

  • Are shaped like two side of a petri dish
4 types of plantlike protist unicellular algae2
4 types of Plantlike Protist: Unicellular Algae
  • Dinoflagellates(pyrrophyta)
  • Are luminescent and when

agitated in water well give off light

  • Can reproduce sexually most

reproduce asexully by binary fission

3 types of plantlike protist multicellular algae
3 types of Plantlike Protist: Multicellular Algae
  • Red Algae(Rhodophyta)

-live at great depth because

they can harvest light energy

-Containing Chlorophyll A and

accessory pigments

-Forms corral reefs found in tropic

water and polar regions

  • Brown Algae(Phaeophyta)
  • Contains Chlorophyll A and C as well as a brown accessory pigment.
  • Mostly found in cool shallow coastal waters of temperate or artic areas
  • The largest known brown algae is giant kelp
3 types of plantlike protist multicellular algae1
3 types of Plantlike Protist: Multicellular Algae
  • Green Algae(Chlorophyta)
  • Has many characteristics of plant

including photosynthetic pigment

and cell walls

  • Found in fresh and salt water even on moist parts of land
  • Green algae life cycle include diploid(having 2 set of chromosome) or haploid(having 1 set of chromosomes) switching back and forth during their life cycle a process known as alternation generation.
funguslike protist
Funguslike Protist
  • Are heterotrophs that absorb nutirents from dead or decaying organic matter.
  • They lack chitin walls of true fungus like a mushroom

3 types of Funguslike Protist

1. Cellular slime molds

2. Acellular slime molds

3. Water molds

3 types of funguslike protist
3 types of Funguslike Protist
  • Cellular slime molds(Acrasiomycota)
  • Produces spores when eviroment is aggrevated using a fruiting body
  • Send out a chemical to attract others of the same species
  • Spends most of life cycle

unicelluar but when the

aggregate they behave


3 types of funguslike protist1
3 types of Funguslike Protist
  • Acellular slime molds(Myxomycota)
  • Begins their life cycle as amoeba-like structures
  • When they aggregate their cells form many nuclei known as plasmodia
  • Will produce haploid spores by fruiting
3 types of funguslike protist2
3 types of Funguslike Protist
  • Water molds(Oomycota)
  • Thrive on dead and decaying orgainic matter
  • They have cell walls made of cellulose and produce motile spores 2 traits fungi do not posses.
4 17 13

Chemistry: demonstrate an understanding of pH; understand that acids and bases differ.

  • Lab Report Format
  • Lab: pH of common substances/chemicals
  • Clean/up Answer Conclusion questions ( turn in lab completed!)
background information
Background Information
  • The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution is very important for living things. This is because; since the hydrogen ions are positively charged they alter the charge environment of other molecules in solution. By putting different forces on the molecules, the molecules change shape from their normal shape. This is particularly important for proteins in solution because the shape of a protein is related to its function.
  • The concentration of hydrogen ions is commonly expressed in terms of the pH scale. Low pH corresponds to high hydrogen ion concentration and vice versa. A substance that when added to water increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (lowers the pH) is called an acid. A substance that reduces the concentration of hydrogen ions (raises the pH) is called a base. Finally some substances enable solutions to resist pH changes when an acid or base is added. Such substances are called buffers. Buffers are very important in helping organisms maintain a relatively constant pH.
lab report format
Lab Report Format

Title: pH of common substances

Purpose: To determine the pH ( acidic or

basic) of common household substances; to also determine the pH of common chemicals used in a chemistry laboratory.



Test tubes, graduated cylinders, litmus paper, soap solution, salt solution, sodium carbonate solution, mineral oil, ethyl alcohol, lemon juice, methanol, Drano, acetone, hydrogen peroxide, and glycerin


On your table predict the pH of each sample BEFORE you begin testing samples.

Test each sample ( no more than 5 mL of each solution. Rinse in between transferring solutions) with both red and blue litmus paper and record the results in your table.

post lab questions

1. According to the data, and what you know about the reaction of acids and bases with litmus paper, what is the pH range for an acid?

2.Calculate your accuracy of your predictions. (Hint: Divide the number of times you were correct by 12 and multiply by 100.)

3.Analyze the substances that tested basic. What connection do you see with regard to their use in the household

4. Of the samples that you could safely taste, what pH range seems to “taste” good?

4 18 13 thursday
4-18-13 Thursday!!!

Demonstrate an understanding of the differences between a bacteria and a virus ( Test); understand the characteristics of Plants ( structures and their funtions)

  • Test : Virus and Bacteria
  • Engage: Plants ( Life Video)

List FIVE facts about plants that you did not know!

( select students will perform environmental sampling of bacteria. We will grow/cultavate, and then identify them in class.)


Due: Bell Ringers 47-51 ( staple together)

Bacteria/Virus Graphic Organizer

Extra Credit #4 Due today

4 19 13

Students should demonstrate an understanding that plants have specialized tissues and cells and to understand their structure, importance and function.

1. Bell Ringer 52 ( grab your jornals)

2. Notes: Plants

3. Independent Work: Plant Cell and Tissue Types

4. Closure: Reminders


Plants Assessment , 4/24/13 ( Wednesday)

bell ringer 52 copy the question then answer in complete sentences
Bell Ringer 52- Copy the question then answer in complete sentences.
  • What is a plant? ( use what characteristics you know to define it)

2. Can plants have animal-like characteristics?

  • 23.1.1 Describe the organs and tissues of vascular plants.
  • 23.1.2 Identify the specialized cells of vascular tissue.
  • 23.1.3 contrast meristematic tissue with other plant tissues.
3 principal organs and tissues of seed plants
3 principal organs and tissues of seed plants
  • Roots
    • Absorbs water and dissolved nutrients.
    • Anchor plants in the ground
    • Protect plants from harmful soil bacteria and fungi
    • Transport water and nutrients to the rest of the plant
  • Stems
    • Has a: support system- for the plant body, transport system-carries nutrients, and a defense system-protects the plant against predators and disease.
  • Leaves
    • Main photosynthetic systems
    • Help conserve water while letting oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and exit the leaf.
figure 23 1 page 580 root stem and leaf tissues
Figure 23–1 Page 580Root, Stem, and Leaf Tissues

Leaves, stems, and roots

What are the 3 principal plant organs?



Which tissue is found in the center of a plant stem?

Ground tissue


Dermal tissue

Vascular tissue

Ground tissue

Three main tissue systems

concept map

Section 23-1

Concept Map

Plant Tissues



















Sieve tubeelements




  • 2 main types
    • Taproots
      • Primary root that grows thicker and longer than others
      • Example: carrots, dandelions, beets, and radishes
    • Fibrous
      • Branch to such an extent that no single root grows larger than the rest
      • Example: grasses
    • How do roots help prevent erosion?
      • Extensive, branching fibrous roots hold soil in place.
figure 23 7 the structure of a root
Figure 23–7 The Structure of a Root

Groundtissue (cortex)



Vascular cylinder

Section 23-2



Root hairs

Ground tissue(cortex)




Zone of maturation

Zone of elongation

Apical meristem

Cross Section of Plant Root(magnification: 40x)

Root cap



  • 3 functions
    • Produce leaves, branches, and flowers
    • Hold leaves up to the sunlight
    • They transport substances between roots and leaves
leaves 23 4



23.4.1 Describe how the structure of a leaf enables it to carry out photosynthesis.

23.4.2 Describe how gas exchange takes place in a leaf.

Read Pages 595-598



  • What is the main function of a plant’s leaf?

The leaves of a plant are its main organs of


  • How does the structure of a leaf enable it to carry out photosynthesis?

The structure of a leaf is optimized for

absorbing light and carrying out


  • How does gas exchange take place in a leaf?

Plants leaves allow gas exchange by opening their stomata.

leaf functions
Leaf Functions
  • Photosynthesis
  • Transpiration
    • the loss of water through its leaves
  • Gas Exchange
    • Plants keep their stomata open just enough to allow photosynthesis to take place but not so much that they lose an excessive amount of water.
Stomata - Porelike openings in the underside of the leaf that allow carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse in and out of the leaf.
    • Each stomata has 2 guard cells.
  • Guard Cells - epidermal cells found on the underside of leaves that control the opening and closing of the stomata by responding to changes in water pressure. Also, responds to conditions in the environment, such as wind and temperature.
  • When the guard cells are swollen with water, the stomata is opened.
  • When the guard cells lose water, the stomata closes.
  • Are open during the daytime, when photosynthesis is active.
  • Are closed at night to prevent water loss.
  • May be closed during bright sunlight under hot, dry conditions in which the plant needs to conserve water to survive.
function of guard cells
Function of Guard Cells

Guard cells

Guard cells

Inner cell wall

Inner cell wall


Stoma Open

Stoma Closed

function of guard cells1
Function of Guard Cells

Section 23-4

Guard cells

Guard cells

Inner cell wall

Inner cell wall


Stoma Open

Stoma Closed

What factor regulates the opening and closing of stomata?

Changes in water pressure within guard cells

now turn to page 578
Now…turn to page 578

Chapter 23 is about Roots, Stems and Leaves.


Test over plants next Wednesday, 4/24/13.