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CycleStack : Inferring Periodic Behavior via Temporal Sequence Visualization in Ultrasound Video. Teng-Yok Lee 1 , Abon Chaudhuri 1 Fatih Porikli 2 , Han-Wei Shen 1. 1 The Ohio State University. 2 Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories. Respiration-gated Therapy (1/2).

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cyclestack inferring periodic behavior via temporal sequence visualization in ultrasound video

CycleStack: Inferring Periodic Behavior via Temporal Sequence Visualization in Ultrasound Video

Teng-Yok Lee1, Abon Chaudhuri1

Fatih Porikli2, Han-Wei Shen1

1The Ohio State University

2Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories

respiration gated therapy 1 2
Respiration-gated Therapy (1/2)
  • Treatment procedures need accurate identification of the tumor’s location
    • Reducing the damage to the surrounding normal tissues
    • Increasing the efficiency of the treatment

The patient’s respiration can cause the periodic movement of the organs/tissues/tumors

respiration gated therapy 2 2
Respiration-gated Therapy (2/2)
  • Utilizes the patient’s respiration signal to control the gate of the beam
  • Requires the therapist to verify the synchronization between the tissue’s motion and the respiration signal

Using ultrasound to sense the tissue’s motion

requirements challenges
Requirements & Challenges
  • Detect the periodic cycles inside the (ultrasound) video
    • Burden in the short term visual memory
  • Visually verify the synchronization between the motion (of the tumor or tissues) and signal (respiration)
    • Different visual representation of the video and the signal
post therapy analysis
Post-therapy Analysis
  • For the purpose of quality assurance
  • Challenge
    • Watching video and signal can be time-consuming and tedious
  • Video visualization

Courtesy: Daniel and Chen, Video Visualization.

In IEEE Vis ‘03

our approaches
Our Approaches
  • Movement trace image
    • Visualization of the motion in a video
    • Side-by-side visualization between the video and the signal
  • CycleStack
    • Overview of the entire video and the signal
movement trace image
Movement Trace Image

Reveal the periodic cycles inside the video

Side-by-side comparison of the motion and the signal

time

Movement Trace Image

movement trace image result
Movement Trace Image: Result

Synchronous time steps

Synchronous time steps

Asynchronous case

Opposite case

movement trace image issue
Movement Trace Image: Issue
  • Comparison in a sliding window
  • Too many cycles in the sliding window is not effective
cyclestack 1 2
CycleStack (1/2)
  • Preserves all time steps on the screen
    • Overview of the video and signal
  • Organizes the movement trace image and signal into small multiples
    • Efficient utilization of the screen space
cyclestack 2 2
CycleStack (2/2)

2. Stack the cycles

2. Stack the cycles

= CycleStack

1. Segment the signal into periodic cycles

Input Respiratory Signal

Movement Trace Image

periodic cycle segmentation
Periodic Cycle Segmentation

1-threshold segmentation

1-threshold segmentation of false cycles

cyclestack layout
CycleStack: Layout

CycleStack

Time

Segmented Cycles

Movement Trace Image

Inhale Phases

Exhale Phases

cyclestack opposite cases
CycleStack: Opposite Cases

Opposite

cycles

Synchronous

cycles

online cyclestack
Online CycleStack
  • Issue
    • Growing CycleStack can exceed the display window
  • Solution
    • CycleStack can be automatically rescaled to fit the display window
user study setting 1 2
User Study: Setting (1/2)
  • Purpose
    • Evaluate the response time and accuracy to detect non-synchronous cases
  • Testing videos
    • Asynchronous cases (1 synthesized & 1 ultrasound video)
    • Opposite cases (1 synthesized & 1 ultrasound video)
user study setting 2 2
User Study: Setting (2/2)
  • 18 participants in 2 groups
    • One group watched videos and signals in separate windows
    • The other group watched the CycleStack
  • Measurement
    • Record the response time when the participants identified non-synchronous cases
    • Compute the detection rate and average response time
user study asynchronous cases
User Study: Asynchronous Cases
  • Observation about CycleStack
    • Higher detection rate in the ultrasound video
    • Slightly slower response time and larger standard deviation
  • Explanation
    • CycleStack keeps all cycles on the screen, allowing the viewer to detect the asynchronous cycle even after it has passed
user study opposite cases
User Study: Opposite Cases
  • Observation about CycleStack
    • Slightly slower response time but smaller standard deviation in the ultrasound video
  • Explanation
    • Opposite cases last longer than asynchronous cases
    • Some viewers of video and signal can detect it, even in late
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Contribution
    • An effective visualization that allows the viewer to compare and to verify the synchronization between a video and a signal
    • Visual detection of non-synchronous cases during the online therapy and offline post-therapy analysis
  • Questions?