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Ch 9.8: Chaos and Strange Attractors: The Lorenz Equations

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Ch 9.8: Chaos and Strange Attractors: The Lorenz Equations. In principle, the methods described in this chapter for second order autonomous systems can be applied to higher order systems as well. In practice, several difficulties arise.

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## Ch 9.8: Chaos and Strange Attractors: The Lorenz Equations

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Ch 9.8: Chaos and Strange Attractors:The Lorenz Equations
• In principle, the methods described in this chapter for second order autonomous systems can be applied to higher order systems as well. In practice, several difficulties arise.
• One problem is that there is simply a greater number of possible cases that can occur, and the number increases with the order of the system (and dimension of the phase space).
• Another problem is the difficulty of graphing trajectories accurately in the phase space of higher than two dimensions.
• Finally, different and very complex phenomena can occur in higher order systems that are not present in second order case.
• In this section we investigate some of these phenomena by discussing one particular third order autonomous system.
Convection in a Layer of Fluid
• An important problem in meteorology, and other applications of fluid dynamics, concerns the motion of a layer of fluid, such as the earth’s atmosphere, that is warmer at the bottom than at the top, see the figure below.
• If vertical temperature difference T is small, then there is a linear variation of temperature with altitude but no significant motion of the fluid layer.
• If T is large enough, then a steady convection motion results.
• As T increases, a more complex and turbulentmotion eventually ensues.
Lorenz Equations
• While studying these phenomena, the American meteorologist Lorenz was led to a nonlinear autonomous third order system
• These equations are known as the Lorenz Equations.
• Note that the second and third equations involve quadratic nonlinearities.
• However, other than being a third order system, superficially these equations seem no more complicated that the competing species or predator-prey equations.
Lorenz Equations: Variables and Parameters
• The Lorenz equations are
• The variable x is related to the intensity of the fluid motion, while the variables y and z are related to temperature variations in the horizontal and vertical directions.
• The parameters , r, b are all real and positive;  and b depend on the material and geometrical properties of the fluid layer.
• For the earth’s atmosphere,  = 10 and b = 8/3.
• The parameter r is proportional to the temperature difference T , and our purpose is to investigate how the nature of the solutions of the Lorenz equations changes with r.
Critical Points
• To find the critical points of the Lorenz equations, we solve
• From the first equation, y = x. Then
• If we choose x = 0, then y = z = 0 follows.
• Alternatively, choose z = r – 1. Then
• Thus P1 = (0,0,0) is a critical point for all r, and it is the only critical point for r < 1.
• However, when r > 1, we have two other critical points:
Critical Points: Birfurcation
• Our critical points are as follows:
• Note that all three critical points coincide when r = 1.
• As r increases through 1, the critical point P1 at the origin bifurcates, and critical points P2 and P3 come into existence.
• We next determine behavior of solns near each critical point.
• Although much of the following analysis can done for  and b arbitrary, we will simplify our work by using  = 10, b = 8/3.
Linear System for Critical Point P1
• With these values for  and b, the Lorenz equations are
• The approximating linear system near the origin is
• The eigenvalues are determined from the equation
Solution Behavior Near Critical Point P1
• Thus the eigenvalues are
• Note that all three eigenvalues are negative for r < 1.
• It follows that the origin is asymptotically stable for r < 1, both for the linear and the nonlinear systems.
• However, 3 changes sign when r = 1, and is positive for r >1.
• The value r = 1 corresponds to the initiation of convective flow in the physical problem described earlier.
• The origin is unstable for r >1; all solutions starting near the origin tend to grow, except for those lying in plane determined by the eigenvectors (1)and (2).
Linear System for Critical Point P2
• The approximating linear system near the critical point

is

• The eigenvalues are determined from the equation
• The solutions of this equation depend on r, as described on the next slide.
Eigenvalues Corresponding to P2 and P3
• The approximating linear system near the critical point

has eigenvalues according to the following three cases:

• For 1 < r < r1  1.3456, there are three negative real eigenvalues.
• For r1 < r < r2  24.737, there are one negative real eigenvalue and two complex eigenvalues with negative real part.
• For r2 < r, there are one negative real eigenvalue and two complex eigenvalues with positive real part.
• The same results are obtained for the critical point
Solution Behavior Near Critical Points
• With these eigenvalue results, we have several different cases for the solution behavior near the critical points.
• For r < 1, the only critical point is P1and it is asymptotically stable. All solutions approach this point (the origin) as t  .
• For 1 < r < r1, P2and P3are asymptotically stable and P1is unstable. All nearby solutions approach either P2or P3 exponentially.
• For r1 < r < r2, P2and P3are asymptotically stable and P1is unstable. All nearby solutions approach either P2or P3; most of them spiral inwardly to the critical point.
• For r2 < r, all three critical points are unstable. Most solutions near P2or P3 spiral away from the critical point.
• However, this is not the end of the story, as we see next.
Solution Behavior for Large r
• Consider solutions for which r is somewhat larger than r2.
• Then P1has one positive eigenvalue and each ofP2and P3has a pair of complex eigenvalues with positive real part.
• A trajectory can approach any one of the critical points only on certain highly restricted paths. The slightest deviation from these paths causes trajectory to depart from the critical point.
• Since none of these critical points is stable, one might expect that most trajectories would approach infinity for large t.
• However, it can be shown that all trajectories remain bounded as t  . In fact, all solutions ultimately approach a certain limiting set of points that has zero volume. This is true not only for r > r2, but for all r > 0.
Solution Graph
• A plot of computed values of x versus t for a typical solution with r > r2 is shown below.
• This graph resembles a random vibration, even though the Lorenz equations are deterministic and the solution is completely determined by the initial conditions.
• Nevertheless, the solution also exhibits a certain regularity in that the frequency and amplitude of the oscillations are essentially constant in time.
Graphs of Initially Nearby Solutions
• The solutions of Lorenz equations are also extremely sensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions.
• The figure below shows the graphs of computed solutions whose initial points are (5, 5, 5) and (5.01, 5, 5), with r = 28.
• The dashed graph is the same one shown on the previous slide.
• The two solutions remain close until t is near 10, after which they seem unrelated.
• Thus Lorenz concluded that detailed long-range weather predictions are probably not possible.
Strange Attractors
• The attracting set in this case, although of zero volume, has a complicated structure and is called a strange attractor.
• The term chaotic has come into general use to describe the solutions shown on the previous slide.
• To determine how and when the strange attractor is created, it is illuminating to investigate solutions for smaller values of r.
• For r = 21, solutions starting at three different initial points are shown here.
Solution Behavior for Smaller Values of r
• As shown in figure (a), for the initial point (3, 8, 0) the solution begins to converge to P3almost at once.
• In figure (b), for initial point (5, 5, 5) there is a short interval of transient behavior, after which solution converges to P2.
• In figure (c), for initial point (5, 5, 10) there is a longer interval of transient behavior, after which the solution converges to P2.
Strange Attractor and r 24.06
• As r increases, the duration of the chaotic transient behavior also increases.
• When r =r3  24.06, the chaotic transients appear to continue indefinitely, and the strange attractor comes into existence.
Phase Portrait Projections
• One can also show the trajectories of the Lorenz equations in the three-dimensional phase space, or at least projections of them in various planes.
• The figures below show projections in the xy-plane (left graph) and xz-plane (right graph).
Uniqueness of Solution in Phase Portraits
• Observe that the graphs in these figures appear to cross over themselves repeatedly.
• Actual trajectories in three-dimensional space do not cross each other, because of the uniqueness of solutions results.
• The apparent crossings are due to the two-dimensional nature of the graphs.
Implications for Numerical Computation
• The sensitivity of solutions to perturbations of the initial data also has implications for numerical computations.
• Different step sizes, different numerical algorithms, or even the execution of the same algorithm on different machines will introduce small differences in the computed solution, which eventually lead to large deviations.
• For example, the exact sequence of positive and negative loops in the calculated solution depends strongly on the precise numerical algorithm and its implementation, as well as on the initial conditions.
• However, the general appearance of the solution and structure of the attracting set are independent of all these factors.
Other Types of Solution Behavior
• Solutions of the Lorenz equations for other parameter ranges exhibit other interesting types of behavior.
• For example, for certain values of r > r2, intermittent bursts of chaotic behavior separate long intervals of apparently steady periodic oscillation.
• For other ranges of r, solutions show the period-doubling described in Section 2.9 for the logistic differential equation.
• Since about 1975, the Lorenz equations and other higher order autonomous systems have been an active area of research.
• Chaotic behavior of solutions appears to be more common than expected at first, and many questions remain unanswered.