Glen Gochal Professor O’Connor-Petruso Seminar in Applied Theory and Research 1 CBSE 7201T Fall 2012 Pygmalion Effect: teachers’ Expectations And how they impact Student Achievement
Table of Contents • Introduction • Statement of Problem: • Slide 3 • Statement of Hypothesis: • Slide 4 • Review of Related Literature: • Slides 5, 6, 7 • References • Slide 8
Statement of Problem: • When adapted to the field of education, the Pygmalion effect has far reaching ramifications on the effectiveness of today’s teaching approach and execution. It is essential that educators become distinctly aware of just how much effect their assumptions on a student’s performance can have on that student’s abilities. This is particularly critical when those assumptions have negative connotations. When an educator anticipates that a student will perform poorly, the student will inevitably perform according to those expectations.
Statement of Hypothesis • Hypothesis 1: • When teachers express an opinion towards a student’s academic performance, that opinion tends to become reality. • Hypothesis 2: • Presented with an anticipation of what his academic performance will be by a teacher, a student will perform accordingly.
The Pygmalion Effect works through the self-fulfilling prophecy. • ..."You see, really and truly, apart from the things anyone can pick up (the dressing and the proper way of speaking, and so on), the difference between a lady and a flower girl is not how she behaves, but how she's treated. I shall always be a flower girl to Professor Higgins, because he always treats me as a flower girl, and always will; but I know I can be a lady to you, because you always treat me as a lady, and always will.” • George Bernard Shaw - Pygmalion
Pygmalion Effect, fact or fiction? • “Strong empirical support was found for a reciprocal relationship between teachers’ behavior and students’ engagement. Teachers’ interactions with students predicted students’ behavioral and emotional engagement in the classroom, both directly and through their effects on student’s perceptions of their interactions with teachers.” • Skinner, Ellen A., Belmont, Michael J. (1993).
What can be done to help teachers be aware of and combat the Pygmalion Effect? • Efforts aimed at helping teachers to avoid harmful stereotyping of students often begin with activities designed to raise teachers' awareness of their unconscious biases. • Cotton. 1989
References • Feldman, R., Prohaska, T. (1979). The Student as Pygmalion: Effect of Student Expectation on the Teacher. Journal of Educational Psychology, v 71 (n4), p 485-493 • Cotton, K (1989).Expectations and Student Outcomes. School Improvement Research Series. Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI), U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. • Natanovich, G., Eden, D. (2008). Pygmalion effects among outreach supervisors and tutors: Extending sex generalizability. Journal of Applied Psychology, V 93(n6), p 1382-1389. doi: 10.1037/a0012566 • Chowdhury,M. (2007) . Pygmalion in sales: The influence of supervisor expectancies on salesperson’s self-expectations and work evaluations. Journal of Business and Public Affairs, V 1 (n1) ISSN 1934-7219 • Rosenthal R & Jacobson L. (1968) Pygmalion in the classroom: teacher expectation and pupils’ intellectual development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. • Brophy, J.E. (1983). Research on the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and Teacher Expectations. Journal Of Educational Psychology 75, 631-661. • Skinner, Ellen A., Belmont, Michael J. (1993). Motivation in the Classroom: Reciprocal Effects of Teacher Behavior and Student Engagement Across the School Year. Journal Of Educational Psychology 85 (4). 571-581. • Brohpy, J.E., Good, T.L. (1974). Teacher-Student Relationships: Causes and Consequences. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehard, and Winston. • Good, T.L. (1987). Two Decades of Research on Teacher Expectations: Findings and Future Directions. Journal of Teacher Education. Vol.38. 32-47. • Rhem,J. (1999) . Pygmalion in the Classroom. National Teaching and Learning Forum. V 8 (n2),p 1-4.