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Learning objective. To understand the importance of virtue and how using virtue can lead to moral excellence and the correct moral choice. KEY WORDS Excellence Prudence Wisdom. Key question What is a virtue?. A ctions.

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learning objective
Learning objective
  • To understand the importance of virtue
  • and how using virtue can lead to moral excellence and the correct moral choice

KEY WORDS

Excellence

Prudence

Wisdom

Key question

What is a virtue?

a ctions
Actions
  • Aristotle believed that every human action was directed towards an aim.
  • I get up in the morning because I want to go to work.
  • I go to work because I want to earn a living and have a career.
  • I want earnings and career so that I can have a good life.
a ctions1
Actions
  • These aims can be separated into superior and subordinate aims.
  • Getting up in the morning is subordinate to earning a living.
  • Ultimately everything is subordinate to the supreme good – Eudaimonia.
a ims
Aims
  • People have different ideas of happiness.

Some seek:

  • It is the last who are to be the best (obv.) They seek things for their own purposes.

Pleasure - hedonists

Honour – serve the community (politicians)

Contemplation – philosophers

the philosopher

What exactly is meant by philosopher is not known.

It could be an academic philosopher but it is more likely to be a person who contemplates life. Thinks deeply and is not overly concerned with material goods.

The Philosopher
  • Aristotle picks the philosopher because he thinks that they exercise key intellectual virtues than enable a person to steer their life towards eudamonia.
  • People cannot be virtuous without being a philosopher and as a result they can not reach eudaimonia.

HEDONIST

POLITICIAN

INCONTINENT LIFE

EUDAMONIA

PHILOSOPHER

VIRTUOUS LIFE

EUDAMONIA

the virtues
The Virtues
  • He singles out five intellectual virtues which the philosopher uses to apply the moral virtues and steer their life in the correct direction.

Prudence or practical wisdom

Common sense

Intuitive intelligence

Good predictions

Wisdom

Sensible

Scientific knowledge

Interest in knowledge

All of these can be developed

through practice and education.

Craft or art - productive

Artistic or something productive

the importance of the virtues
The importance of the virtues
  • He spends more time on prudence that any other.
  • A prudent person deliberates well both about that which is good in specific areas but also what it means to live well in general.
  • Prudence gives insights into the truth about human action.
  • Although possibly not considered virtues today they were important for working what the golden mean was in a situation.
  • Essential for not only being virtuous but attaining eudamonia.
d emonstration
Demonstration
  • The saying “The road to hell is paved with good intentions” demonstrates the importance of the intellectual virtues.
  • I might show great courage in sacrificing myself but in doing so I may go about things the wrong way.
  • You may do a string of good actions but unless you understand the direction you should be taking them you may end up on the wrong path.
d emonstration1
Demonstration
  • The saying “The road to hell is paved with good intentions” demonstrates the importance of the intellectual virtues.
  • I might show great courage in sacrificing myself but in doing so I may go about things the wrong way.
  • You may do a string of good actions but unless you understand the direction you should be taking them you may end up on the wrong path.
the philosopher1

The philosopher can be imagined like a captain of a ship.

Using their intellectual virtues they steer their life into the right direction.

And are more likely to achieve the greatest good in life.

They are more likely to reach eudaimonia.

The Philosopher
overview
Overview
  • All actions have an aim
  • Some actions are subordinate to others
  • All actions should be subordinate to the final purpose of a human
  • Their are different understanding of the final purpose.
  • Hedonist, politician, philosopher
  • In order to steer your life in the right direction you should use the intellectual virtues.
  • The philosopher is better equipped to steer their life towards eudaimonia.