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An Educator’s Guide to the Common Core. Module 3. CCSS ELA Shifts 2 and 3. Complex Texts. Complex Texts. 3 Key ELA Shifts. Complex Texts. Complex Texts. 3 Key ELA Shifts. Grounded in evidence from texts. Complex Texts. Complex Texts. 3 Key ELA Shifts.

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Presentation Transcript
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Module 3

CCSS ELA Shifts 2 and 3

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Complex Texts

Complex Texts

3 Key ELA Shifts

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Complex Texts

Complex Texts

3 Key ELA Shifts

Grounded in evidence from texts

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Complex Texts

Complex Texts

3 Key ELA Shifts

Grounded in evidence from texts

Building knowledge through nonfiction

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Grounded in Evidence from Texts

“The True Story of the Three Little Pigs”

by John Scieszka

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Grounded in Evidence from Texts

“Everybody knows the story of the Three Little Pigs. Or at least they think they do.”

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Grounded in Evidence from Texts

“But I’ll let you in on a little secret. Nobody knows the real story, because nobody has ever heard my side of the story.”

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Please read Christina Hank’s blog post on “Defining ‘Deep Reading’ and ‘Text-Dependent Questions,’ in which she discusses a lesson on satire based on Dr. Seuss’s The Butter Battle Book.  

Think about Ms. Hank’s suggestion that her very robust pre-reading discussions left her students with “ only the bones of a Thanksgiving turkey, having picked away all the meaty parts myself.” Do you agree?

Text-Dependent Questions

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Click on the video image following Ms. Hank’s blog to see a lesson in which a high school teacher helps her students uncover the “subversive” meaning in Robert Frost’s poem “The Road Not Taken.” About 6 minutes into the 8-minute video she asks the big questions:

  • What words or phrases do you think Robert Frost has used to suggest that there’s really no difference between the two roads?
  • What words or phrases does Robert Frost use to signal that the narrator might have a feeling of regret?
  • Note how astute the students are in identifying the words that reveal the narrator’s feelings.
  • ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Ms. Hank is the Secondary Curriculum Director for Medina City Schools (Ohio) and a former teacher of English language arts.

Text-Dependent Questions

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Reading of a complex text may take place over several days, with each re-reading providing an increasingly sophisticated level of understanding. Here are some guidelines provided by Jennifer Neff in her article, “Depend on the Text! How to Create Text-Dependent Questions,” based on the work of Dr. Doug Fisher and Dr. Nancy Frey.

READING 1: Literal-level questions promote general understanding and focus on key textual details so students grasp the main idea.

READING 2; Fosters deeper thinking, focusing attention on vocabulary, text structure, and author's purpose. Questions ask students to think about the author's decisions, to consider the purpose.

READING 3: Students answer questions requiring inferences and the formation of opinions and arguments about the text, using textual evidence for support.

SOURCE: www.readwritethink.org

Creating Questions

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Let’s consider a passage from the 4th-5th grade band, Informational Text, in Appendix B of the Common Core.

Please list three text-dependent questions you could ask based on this passage. Make sure to ask one question that highlights essential vocabulary, one that focuses on main idea, and one that requires students to make an inference about the author’s purpose.

Creating Questions

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Here are some possible text-based questions to accompany Joy Hakim’s text exemplar. Your questions may be different.

  • Vocabulary:
  • In Paragraph 2, what does the author mean by the word “bountiful”? What evidence does the text provide?
  • What does the author mean by “swarming with animals”? How do you know?
  • Main Idea:
  • What is the main idea of the second paragraph? What details does the author provide to support this idea?
  • Author’s Purpose:
  • In Paragraph 3, why does the author repeat the words “giant” and “gigantic”? What else does she do to illustrate the size of the redwood forest?
  • What is the author’s purpose in writing “Chapter 7: The Show-Offs”? Why has she chosen this title? How does her evidence support this idea?

Self-Evaluation

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Please review the text-dependent questions you created for the previous activity, then check “yes” or “no” for each of the statements below.

  • For more information about creating text-dependent questions, please see the following:
  • www.readwritethink.org
  • www.achievethecore.org

Self-Evaluation

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Ask text-based questions.

What if students don’t have the answers?

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Why was Jack’s mom angry?

What was the girl wearing?

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Why was Jack’s mom angry?

What was the girl wearing?

What did the author mean by . . . ?

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What’s the capital of Idaho?

Why was Jack’s mom angry?

What was the girl wearing?

What did the author mean by . . . ?

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Think-Aloud

A Think-Aloud provides

explicit instruction that makes visible the thinking processes of effective readers.

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Please read the article on Think-Alouds written by C. Glass and V. Zygouris-Coe.

  • In it, you’ll find information on the following:
  • How to Use the Strategy
  • Think-Aloud Examples
  • Passing Strategic Expertise to Students
  • Assessment.
  • Following the reading, you’ll see a teacher using Think-Alouds in an elementary classroom, and you’ll write a Think-Aloud suitable for use with students you teach.
  • SOURCE: https://www.ocps.net/cs/services/cs/currareas/read/IR/bestpractices/SZ/Think%20Alouds.pdf

Think-Aloud

How-To’s

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In this video, a primary teacher uses a Think-Aloud to demonstrate strategies for reading informational texts.

As you watch, please note the information-gathering strategies she models.

Elementary Think-Aloud

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Now, watch the annotated version of the video to compare your observations with those we’ve noted.

Elementary Think-Aloud

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Think-Aloud

  • The Glass and Zygouris-Coe article lists nine Think-Aloud strategies:
  • Make a prediction
  • Ask a question
  • Clarify something
  • Make a comment
  • Make a connection
  • Figure out if I need to re-read
  • Ask myself if I understand what I’ve read
  • Make mental pictures
  • Compare what is being learned with what has been learned previously
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Think-Aloud

Let’s return to the Joy Hakim reading to consider an example of a Think-Aloud.

A teacher using this passage with his students might use a Think-Aloud to show students what to do when they encounter an unfamiliar word like “bountiful.”

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Think-Aloud

[Reads the first three sentences.]

“I’m reading Paragraph 2 in the Hakim article, and I’m stuck on the word ‘bountiful.’ I’ve never seen the word before and I feel a little lost. So I re-read the beginning of the paragraph to see where the author is headed, and I see that she says ‘life is easy for the Indians,’ and she calls them ‘affluent,” which means ‘wealthy.’ So I’m thinking ‘bountiful’ is probably a good thing, and I read on.”

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Think-Aloud

“The author says, ‘the rivers are full of salmon and sturgeon’ – I’m thinking those are fish. Then she says the ocean is ‘full of’ a bunch of sea animals. She says the woods are ‘swarming’ with game animals. I know the word ‘swarm’ means a whole bunch, like bees. I like that. Everywhere you look, there are animals.

Ok, now she’s talking about berries and nuts, and I’m lost again.”

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Think-Aloud

“But wait. Look at these last two sentences. ‘They are not farmers. They don’t need to farm.’

Why is that? Oh yeah, they are surrounded by fish, and animals, and nuts and berries. So I think this means they have plenty to eat.

So I’m thinking ‘bountiful’ is something about having plenty, like the world is taking care of their needs.”

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Now, it’s your turn to write a Think- Aloud.

  • Use the passage you chose in the text complexity activity in Module 2 (a personal favorite, Charlotte’s Web, or To Kill a Mockingbird).
  • Choose a standard (or skill described within a standard) for “Reading: Literature” or “Reading: Informational Text” for your grade level.
  • Write a Think-Aloud based on your passage that addresses that standard. You may use one or more of the strategies listed in the Glass and Zygouris-Coe article.

Write a Think-Aloud

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Please use the following checklist to evaluate your Think-Aloud dialogue.

For more information about Think-Alouds, please see http://www.readingrockets.org/article/102.

Self-Evaluation

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Please go to your journal and complete the following prompts:

  • Review the “Reading: Literature” and “Reading: Informational Text” standards for your grade level. For which standards would Think-Aloudsbe most immediately useful in your classroom, and why?
  • Describe the next step in your lesson once you’ve modeled a Think-Aloud. How might you ask your students to practice the targeted skill under your supervision?

Journal

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Complex Texts

Complex Texts

3 Key ELA Shifts

Grounded in evidence from texts

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Complex Texts

Complex Texts

3 Key ELA Shifts

Grounded in evidence from texts

Building knowledge through nonfiction

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Building Knowledge Through Nonfiction

Informational Text

Literature

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Grounded in Evidence from Texts

Elementary School: 50/50

Informational Text

Literature

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Grounded in Evidence from Texts

By Grade 8: 55/45

Informational Text

Literature

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Grounded in Evidence from Texts

By Grade 12: 70/30

Informational Text

Literature

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Writing Instruction

Argument Writing

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Writing Instruction

Argument Writing

Informational/Explanatory Writing

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In this blog post, English teacher and football coach Court Allan tackles the topic of close reading, providing five clear strategies for annotating texts. No fancy study guides required.

If you’ve been searching for strategies that support efficient, effective, independent readers, this one’s for you.

Annotated Texts

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The thoughtful examination of text described in the previous blog post sets the stage for writing as described by the Common Core.

The Anchor Standards for Writing require students to “gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources” and “draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.” Further, “the standards’ focus on evidence-based writing along with the ability to inform and persuade is a significant shift from current practice.”

In this video, we return to the primary classroom we visited earlier, to see students use research gathered during reading to prepare for a writing activity.

As you watch, please note the strategies the teacher provides her students to help them connect reading and writing.

From Reading to Writing

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Now, watch the annotated version of the video to compare your observations with those we’ve noted.

From Reading to Writing

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From Reading to Writing

Let’s return to the Joy Hakim passage in Appendix B to consider ideas for text-based writing instruction.

The Standard:

Let’s focus on this writing standard for grade 4: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.9Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

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From Reading to Writing

The Skill:

Paragraphs 2 and 3 could be used to introduce or review the skill of paraphrasing or summarizing. How do we write about Joy Hakim’s ideas without using her exact words?

A written response to this text could be quite short, a single summary sentence or a paragraph describing Hakim’s claim and the evidence she provides.

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From Reading to Writing

Annotation:

We might ask students to annotate the text as follows:

Have the class identify the claim made by the author at the beginning of Paragraph 2: “Life is easy for the Indians here in the Northwest.”

Students then underline details to support this claim.

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From Reading to Writing

More writing opportunities:

Additional reading on the Northwest Indians could be used as a jumping-off point for a lesson on integrating material from more than once source.

Alternatively, texts describing the lives of other Indian groups during this time could be used to support a claim concerning the ease of the Northwest Indians’ lives. (Were the lives of the Northwest Indians easier or more difficult than the second group? Make a claim and provide evidence.)

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Now, it’s your turn to describe a text-based writing assignment.

Return to the passage you chose earlier in this module (a favorite text, Charlotte’s Web, or To Kill a Mockingbird).

The Standard: From the Writing standards for your grade level, choose one on which to focus for this assignment. (Please identify the standard at the beginning of your assignment.)

The Skill: Identify the skill you want to address in your lesson. Note this can be a skill needed to reach the standard, but not mentioned specifically, for example “summarizing” or “paraphrasing” as identified in the Joy Hakim example. Note also that this can be a brief writing assignment, for example, a paragraph completed at the end of the class period.

Annotation: Identify what you’d like your students to annotate, based on the strategies describe in the Allan blog.

More Writing Opportunities: In 2 or 3 sentences, describe how you could expand on this assignment in future lessons. (See the Joy Hakim writing assignment for details.)

Create a Writing Assignment

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Please use the following checklist to evaluate the writing assignment you created.

For annotated student writing samples, identified by grade and writing type, see Appendix C.

For outstanding videos that explore the connections between reading and writing, see

http://readingandwritingproject.com/resources/video-and-e-media.html .

Self-Evaluation

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Please go to your journal and complete the following prompts:

  • Describe an experience in which preparing for a writing assignment by reading an informational text made writing instruction easier. If you don’t typically connect writing to the reading of informational text, how might doing so make instruction easier?
  • What might the impact of this shift be on your struggling students, and how could your break the task you created into smaller, more manageable steps for these students?

Journal