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Unit 11. Age of Revolutions and Rebellions: Asia & the West . Age of Revolutions and Rebellions. SSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions. a. Examine absolutism through a comparison of the rules of Louis XIV, Tsar Peter the Great, and Tokugawa Ieyasu .

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unit 11

Unit 11

Age of Revolutions and Rebellions: Asia & the West

age of revolutions and rebellions
Age of Revolutions and Rebellions
  • SSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions.

a. Examine absolutism through a comparison of the rules of Louis XIV, Tsar Peter the Great, and Tokugawa Ieyasu.

b. Identify the causes and results of the revolutions in England (1689), United States (1776), France (1789), Haiti (1791), and Latin America (1808-1825).

c. Explain Napoleon’s rise to power, the role of geography in his defeat, and the consequences of France’s defeat for Europe

d. Examine the interaction of China and Japan with westerners; include the Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, and Commodore Perry.

the interaction of china and japan with westerners
The Interaction of China and Japan with Westerners
  • SSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions.

d. Examine the interaction of China and Japan with westerners; include the Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, and Commodore Perry.

chinese idealism
Chinese Idealism

The culture at this time viewed outsiders as inferior barbarians…

the portuguese
The Portuguese

Around 1514, the Portuguese reached China

Eventually set up trade

Chinese let them set up a trading station in Macao


They used their knowledge of astronomy to get into the emperor's inner circle

Emperor was in charge of predictions of eclipses and timing of the seasons

Helped revise the Chinese calendar

The emperor began appointing Jesuit missionaries to official positions

The Jesuits gradually gained power… economic and political, as well as spiritual.


Their power aroused jealousy and concern among some leaders

Qing rulers began to turn on the Jesuits

Emperors realized that the Chinese Catholics were expected to promise faith and allegiance to the pope.

It was feared this would undermine the peoples loyalty to the throne and bring about rebellion and overthrow.


Christianity was denounced as anti-Confucion

The number of converts dwindled

China also deported European missionaries to Macao


During the late 1600s the British established a trading post at Guangzhou

The came to buy silk and tea.

Tea was brought to China by the Dutch

Great Britain was a land of tea drinkers and regarded Chinese tea as the best in the world


The British East India Company monopolized the new trade in Chinese tea

The British agreed to the Chinese restrictions

They could only dock at Guangzhou, live in special quarters outside the city wall, and only deal with officially approved Chinese merchants

  • The policies worked for a while
  • Minimum contact between the Chinese and British was kept to a minimum
  • In the late 1700s, there were two new developments:
    • New ideas about trade
    • The sale of opium
free trade ideas
Free Trade Ideas

Free trade developed in the West as a reaction to mercantilism

Supporters of free trade argued that the government should not restrict or interfere with international trade

Others resented the British East India Company’s monopoly on tea trade

free trade ideas1
Free Trade Ideas

The British government became involved in the trade matters because it wanted new overseas markets to sell their goods.

The Chinese did not allow more ports

In 1833, the British East India Company’s monopoly on trade with China was abolished

The company basically failed

opium trade
Opium Trade

Britain traded cotton from India for tea

There was a limited demand for the cotton China needed.

Britain wanted more and more tea.

Britain needed a new product to trade

It was opium

Opium - a narcotic substance, poisonous in large doses. It causes dullness or inaction or that soothes the mind or emotions.

opium wars 1839 1842
Opium Wars 1839-1842

Opium addiction in China was on the rise.

When the Chinese tried to forcibly stop the opium trade, war broke out.

China was no match for the British fleet which included iron-hulled steam ships.

In 1842, the British took control of the region near Nanjing.

The Chinese were ready to negotiate.

treaty of nanjing
Treaty of Nanjing

China had to give Hong Kong to the British

The Chinese also had to open 5 ports for British trade.

British goods had fixed, low tariffs.

Ports were governed by the British and court cases would be tried in British courts

Extraterritoriality – the requirement that foreigners must follow the laws of their home country instead of the laws of the country in which they live.


Other countries wanted treaties with China to have new markets for their goods.

China had signed the earlier treaties under the pressure of defeat and fear of invasion.

These are called “unequal” treaties.

unequal treaties
Unequal Treaties
  • China went to war with the British again over a trade dispute.
  • The French sided with China
  • China lost again
  • The Chinese were forced to sign another treaty.
    • More ports along the Yangtze river
    • A British embassy in Beijing
    • A long-term lease of China mainland opposite Hong Kong
    • Chinese had to protect Christian missionaries and their converts
  • Other foreign countries followed
taiping rebellion 1850 1864
Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864
  • Led by Hong Xiuquan
    • Influenced by Christian teachings
    • Said he was the younger brother of Jesus
    • Established the Taiping “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” with himself as king
    • Banned slavery, concubinage, arranged marriage, opium, footbinding, judicial torture, and the worship of idols
taiping rebellion 1850 18641
Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864

Terrible destructions to southern China and the Yangtze valley

Millions were killed

Cities and farmland destroyed

Muslims in central and western China launched their own rebellions

The Qing finally put down these rebellions in the late 1870s


Weakened the Qing dynasty and the nation

Foreign powers took advantage and demanded more concessions and ports

Foreign interference in China’s political and economic affairs

Weakened China’s power to rule it’s government and undermined the emperor’s prestige

Reduced the country’s control of its own economy



Tokugawa Shoguns

Matthew Perry

commodore matthew perry
Commodore Matthew Perry


The man who unlocked unlocked Japan

matthew perry
Matthew Perry

Part of Japan’s isolation plan was not to harbor ships from other nations during storms

It angered Westerners

Western nations wanted to open trade with Japan like China.

treaty of kanagawa1
Treaty of Kanagawa

In a show of force and dignity, he ceremoniously presented the letter from the president

He would return a year later for their answer

In 1853 President Millard Fillmore sent Perry and a powerful naval force to Japan

He was sent to negotiate a treaty to guarantee the safety of U.S. sailors and open ports for U.S. trade

treaty of kanagawa2
Treaty of Kanagawa
  • Japan opened 2 ports to let Americans obtain fuel, shelter, and supplies
  • Trade began between the 2 nations
  • Within 2 years, Japan signed similar treaties with other European Countries.

After debate and controversy, the shogun reluctantly agreed to negotiate with Perry when he returned

tokugawa ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu

Life in Tokugawa Japan was peaceful but heavily controlled by the shogunal government.

After a century of chaotic warfare, the Tokugawa Peace was much-needed.

All people were confined to their traditional roles (class structure)

tokugawa ieyasu1
Tokugawa Ieyasu

Japanese Christians were first banned from practicing their religion in 1614 by Tokugawa Hidetada.

All citizens are required to register with their local Buddhist temple.

Any who refused were considered disloyal.

Christian peasants revolted but was stamped out by the shogunate.

tokugawa ieyasu2
Tokugawa Ieyasu

Afterward, Japanese Christians were exiled, executed or driven underground, and Christianity faded from the country.

Despite some heavy-handed tactics, the Tokugawa shoguns presided over a long period of peace and relative prosperity in Japan.