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DOCUMENTATION. Using Quotations, Embedded Citations, and Works Cited Lists MLA Style. Today. What is documentation ? What should I cite? How should I cite it? How do I create a bibliography? How do I create a Works Cited List? Embedded (parenthetical) citations Foot notes and end notes

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Using Quotations, Embedded Citations, and Works Cited Lists

MLA Style

  • What is documentation?
  • What should I cite?
  • How should I cite it?
  • How do I create a bibliography?
  • How do I create a Works Cited List?
  • Embedded (parenthetical) citations
  • Foot notes and end notes
  • Academic honesty

The process of clearly stating the source of all ideas and information in your work.

Improper documentation or plagiarism happens when you:

  • Copy someone’s ideas
  • Copy someone’s words
  • Copy someone’s photos/images/data

…and say they are your own

recording sources
Recording Sources
  • Keep track of your sources as you research
  • Your notes should ALWAYS list page references (where possible) and full source information
  • create a source list for every assignment (including presentations)
  • use the MLA style Work Cited list unless you are told otherwise

For an explanation of MLA style see Appendix 2

creating a works cited list
Creating a Works Cited List

See pg. 58 Student Research Guide

bibliographies works cited lists what s the difference
Bibliographies & Works Cited Lists – What’s the difference?
  • Reference List
  • Lists all references (works) referred to in your paper
  • APA format
  • Used in science, social science, math, business, Phys. Ed.

A Bibliography =

    • Alphabetical list of sources
    • All works consulted
  • A Works Cited list =
    • Alphabetical list of sources
    • All works cited

Check with your teacher if you are unsure of the format they require

creating a bibliography
Creating a Bibliography

See pg. 71 Student Research Guide

what should i cite
What Should I Cite?

If no sources are documented or referenced the assumption is that you are the creator

  • You must give credit for
    • any ideas which are not your own
    • any photos or images which are not your own
    • direct quotations from a text
how should i cite within my writing
How should I cite within my writing?
  • at the end of a statement
  • at the end of a direct quotation
  • 3 choices:
    • Embedded Citations
    • Foot notes
    • End notes

They must match your works cited list!

embedded citations
Embedded Citations
  • Parenthetical
  • Embedded
  • In text
  • …different words for the same thing
embedded citations mla
Embedded Citations (MLA)

See pg. 58 Student Research Guide

foot notes end notes
Foot Notes & End Notes
  • End Notes use the same basic form as Foot Notes format them as follows
  • On a separate sheet AFTER your essay
  • Use the title Notes (centred)
  • Number consecutively
  • No punctuation after the number
embedded citations mla punctuation
Embedded Citations (MLA) Punctuation
  • Generally punctuation is placed outside the parentheses...

(5; act 1).

(3. 4.147);

(Pennington 73),

embedded citations mla punctuation cont d
Embedded Citations (MLA) Punctuation cont’d...

…except when the citation appears at the end of a block quotation set off from the text.

In Thompson Highway’s The Rez Sisters, Pelaija expresses this

sense of loss:

So what! And the old stories, the old language. Almost all

gone…was a time Nanabush and Windigo and everyone could

rattle away in Indian fast as Bingo Betty could lay her bingo chips

down on a hot night. (5; act 1)

Quoted in: Aaron, Jane E. and Murray McArthur. The Little Brown Compact Handbook. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada, Inc., 2003, 352.

using quotations
Using Quotations


  • when you want to include something which makes a powerful or memorable point
  • to confirm the credibility of your argument
  • to argue someone else’s position
using quotations1
Using Quotations


  • Copy word-for-word
  • Less than 5 lines?
    • Place “quotation marks” around the passage
  • Longer than 5 lines?
    • Do not place it in quotation marks. Instead, create a block quotation
using quotations2
Using Quotations

Example 1 - Quotation Marks

To a large extent, Of Mice and Men mirrors the myth of the Garden of Eden particularly the role of the woman. Charlotte Cook Hadella agrees with this concept and notes, “The role of the woman[…] is that of the temptress, the despoiler of the Garden[…] Steinbeck makes the woman the instrument of destruction of the land dream” (53,54).

using quotations3
Using Quotations

Example 2 - Block Quotation

Goldhurst, however, argues that the central theme in Of Mice and Men is that of Cain and Abel:

Viewed in the light of its mythic and allegorical implications, Of Mice and Men is a story about the nature of man’s fate in a fallen world, with particular emphasis upon the question: is man destined to live alone, a solitary wanderer on the face of the earth, or is it the fate of man to care for man, to go his way in companionship with another? This is the same theme that occurs in the Old Testament […] The implications of the Cain-and-Abel drama are everywhere apparent in the fable of George and Lennie […] (39).

final thoughts
Final Thoughts...

There are different styles for different subject areas - ask which one is required of you.

It takes time to learn these methods, but you’ll thank yourself in the end!

Practice good habits now!

online resources 1
Online Resources 1
  • The Library @ Seattle Central

  • Online Writing Lab - Purdue University*

  • University of Toronto - Advice on Academic Writing*

  • University of British Columbia Library

  • University of Wisconsin-Madison - The Writing Center

*Highly recommended - see also the print and online resources in the Works Cited list (last slide)

online resources 2
Online Resources 2

Writing Labs Main Pages




Paraphrasing and Summarizing

works cited
Works Cited

Aaron, Jane E. and Murray McArthur. The Little Brown Compact Handbook. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada, Inc., 2003.

Bedford/St. Martin’s. “Citation Styles Online! Using MLA Style to Cite and Document Sources”. 2003. 16 Dec. 2004. <>.

Dodgson, Rose and others.Student Research Guide. Toronto: Toronto District School Board, 2003. Also available online at <>.

Kasman Valenza, Joyce. "Anti-Plagiarism Campaign: The Struggle for Academic Integrity." Connected Newsletter. December 2003/January 2004: 4-7.

Lee, I. “A Research Guide for Students: Chapter 9 - Parenthetical References in MLA Style”. 26 Nov 2004. 16 Dec. 2004. <>.

OWL at Purdue University. “Avoiding Plagiarism”. 2004. 20 Feb. 2004.<>.

OWL at Purdue University. “Paraphrase: Write it in Your Own Words”. 2004. 20 Feb. 2004. <>.

appendix 1 common knowledge
Appendix 1: Common Knowledge

“Material is probably common knowledge if . . .

  • You find the same information undocumented in at least five other sources
  • You think it is information that your readers will already know
  • You think a person could easily find the information with general reference source


OWL at Purdue University. “Avoiding Plagiarism “. 2004. 20 Feb. 2004. <>.

appendix 2 what is mla style
Appendix 2: What is MLA Style?

MLA = Modern Languages Association

  • developed a style recommended “for preparing scholarly manuscripts and student research papers […] the mechanics of writing, such as punctuation, quotation, and documentation of sources”.
  • One of the “Big Three” authorities on documentation style - the other two being the American Psychological Association [APA] and the University of Chicago Press [Chicago Style].
  • Used mainly for documenting sources in languages, the arts and the humanities.

Source: Modern Languages Association. “What is MLA Style?”. 9 Sep. 2003. 17 Dec. 2004. <>.