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Ch 22 Euro. 19th century: Political and Social Changes. Events as reflected in the arts: Romanticism 1800 - 1850. What is the main event taking place in England during these 50 years?. industrialization. What is the main event taking place in France during these 50 years?.

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ch 22 euro
Ch 22 Euro
  • 19th century: Political and Social Changes
events as reflected in the arts romanticism 1800 1850
Events as reflected in the arts:Romanticism 1800 - 1850

What is the main event taking place in England during these 50 years?


What is the main event taking place in France during these 50 years?

revolts, revolutions

romanticism in england
Romanticism in England

importance of nature


Rain, Steam and Speed - The Great Western Railway 1844

by Constable J.M.W. Turner

The Hay Wain 1821

by John Constable

What themes are found in each painting?

romanticism in france
Romanticism in France
  • What are you expecting to see?
romanticism in france1
Romanticism in France

Liberty Leading the People 1830

by Eugene Delacroix’s

What is it celebrating?

The July Revolution


1815 1830 conflicting isms
1815 - 1830Conflicting “isms”




backing up to 1815
Backing up to 1815
  • What two political forces of the 19th century were in part due to the conquest of Napoleon?
  • What liberal ideas spread throughout Europe due to Napoleon’s conquest?
metternich and napoleon
Metternich and Napoleon

Your sovereigns born on the throne can let themselves be beaten twenty times and return to their capitals. I cannot do this because I am an upstart soldier. My domination will not survive the day when I cease to be strong, and therefore feared.

Who said this to whom?

congress of vienna
Congress of Vienna

Tallyrand watches which way the wind is blowing.

republic of Geneva(?) pays homage to the kingdom of Sardinia

King of Saxony holds on to his crown

Castlereagh hesitates

rulers of

Russia (Czar Alexander I), Prussia (William Frederick III) and Austria (Francis I) perform the dance of the Holy Alliance


Europe in 1812

Europe in 1815

What changed?

States state up as barriers to French expansion:

Kingdom of the Netherlands which included Belgium

Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south.

Prussia was given new territories along the Rhine River to deter French aggression in the west.

Austria was given full control of northern Italy

congress of vienna 1814 1815
Congress of Vienna1814 - 1815
  • conservative
  • made sure legitimate sovereigns were not challenged by liberal and nationalist revolts
  • The “Concert of Europe” was meant to continue what the Congress of Vienna had started. It met annually.
  • Burschenschaften- university fraternities - nationalistic
  • A university student murders a leading conservative historian and Metternich gets Francis I of Austria and Frederick William III of Prussia to go after the Burshcenschaften.
  • The Carlsbad Decrees 1819:
      • censors the press
      • dissolves the student fraternities
      • professors now watched for teaching subversive ideas
revolts in spain and italy
Revolts in Spain and Italy
  • Liberal revolt in Spain 1820
  • Liberal revolts in Naples, Piedmont and Sardinia (Italy)
  • Congress of Troppau agreement by the Holy Alliance in 1820 proclaiming the right to intervene militarily in any country in which political changes were brought about by revolution.
  • King of Spain, Ferdinand VII, restored to the throne 1823
  • 1823 U.S. President James Monroe issues his Monroe Doctrine fearing the Concert of Europe might try to help Spain restore its Latin American colonies.
          • “the American continents . . . are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.”
france under louis xviii
France under Louis XVIII
  • Restoration of the Bourbon dynasty = Louis XVIII
  • Ultraroyalists called him “King Voltaire” because of his constitution, The Charter of 1814, known as The Charter:
  • made France a constitutional monarchy
  • recognized equality under the law and accepted the Napoleonic Code
  • established an Assembly:
        • Chamber of Deputies (lower house)
        • Chamber of Peers (upper House)
  • only wealthy men could vote (a narrow franchise)
  • freedom of the press, freedom of religion
  • Dies in 1824 and his brother, the count of Artois, becomes
  • King Charles X
france under charles x r1824 1830
France under Charles X(r1824 - 1830)
  • Ultraroyalist
  • When liberals won a majority in the Chambers of Deputies he . . .
  • Issued is July Ordinances of 1830 (a coup d’etat):
      • dissolves the newly elected Chamber of Deputies
      • disenfranchised 3/4 of those eligible to vote
      • ordered new elections with the new wealthy voters
      • censored the press
  • Reaction - barricades go up in Paris - revolt - Charles X abdicates
  • New king: Louis Philippe I (r1830 - 1848) The July Revolution
  • Louis Philippe I, the “July Monarchy,” the “bourgeois monarchy”
the july revolution 1830 of france
The July Revolution 1830 of France
  • Although all citizens were proclaimed equal before the law, only the privileged elite, as defined by wealth, would have the right to vote.
  • What did not happen:
        • popular sovereignty or universal male suffrage
  • A victory only for the wealthy middle class, not the working class

popularity dwindles by 1848

revolts in greece and belgium
Revolts in Greece and Belgium
  • Greeks revolted against the Ottoman Turks in 1821- Greek independence = 1832
  • Belgium revolted against rule of the Netherlands - Belgium won its independence in 1831
russia the decembrist revolt of 1825
RussiaThe Decembrist Revolt of 1825

Czar Alexander I

  • Czar Alexander I dies - December 1825
  • Nicholas I, his brother takes the throne.
  • Moscow garrison, liberals, are against him, and lead a revolt.
  • Nicholas orders troops loyal to him to fire and insurrection is over.
  • Nicholas I will rule as an autocrat

Decembrist Revolt of 1825

Nicholas I

  • Poor harvest 1818-1819 leads to grain riots
  • Mass meeting (50,000) at St. Peter’s Fields in Manchester
  • Troops fire into the crowd - Peterloo Massacre 1819 - a shameful victory over defenseless laboring poor.
  • Parliament passes the Six Acts:
        • banned demonstrations
        • suspended the write of habeas corpus
        • censors the press
britain s reforms
Britain’s Reforms:
  • Great Reform Bill of 1832
    • The minimum requirement for voting was lower doubling the size of the electorate.
    • The British Parliament now reflected the country’s economic and social evolution of the Industrial Revolution
    • rotten boroughs eliminated
  • Repeal of the Corn Law - 1846
    • Led by Conservative Prime Minister Robert Peel who believed in free trade. This ended his career.
    • A victory for economic liberalism

Nature of early 19th century conflicts:

Conservative governments suppressing liberal and nationalist revolts.

Identify the following as conservative, liberal or nationalist forces:

  • Congress of Vienna
  • Carlsbad Decrees
  • Greek Revolt
  • Louis XVIII
  • The Charter
  • Charles X
  • Corn Laws
  • Burschenschaften
  • Metternich
  • Decembrist Revolt of 1825
  • Nicholas I
  • Great Reform Bill of 1832
  • Revolts in Spain and Italy
early 19th century british reforms
Early 19th century British Reforms
1815 1830
1815 - 1830
  • Domestic unrest will lead to repressive actions by the monarchs.
  • Give examples that will validate this statement.
      • Germany
      • Britain
      • France
      • Russia

To what extent were reactionary governments successful in suppressing opposing ideologies and movements throughout Europe between 1815 and 1830?Give specific examples.