Solutions

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# Solutions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Solutions. IB Chemistry. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances . It is made of a solvent and a solute. SOLUTE – the part of a solution that is being dissolved (usually the lesser amount)

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### Solutions

IB Chemistry

It is made of a solvent and a solute.

SOLUTE – the part of a solution that is being dissolved (usually the lesser amount)
• SOLVENT – the part of a solution that dissolves the solute (usually the greater amount)
• Solute + Solvent = Solution

moles solute

(

M

)

=

Molarity

liters of solution

Concentration of Solution

The amount of solute in a solution is given by its concentration.

M = n/V mol dm-3

Concentration
• If something is concentrated it has more moles/grams of solute per amount of solvent.
• Ex: 12 M HCl
• If something is dilute it has less moles/grams of solute per amount of solvent

Ex: 0.10 M HCl

PROBLEM: Dissolve 5.00 g of NiCl2 in enough water to make 250 mL of solution. Calculate the Molarity.

Step 1: Calculate moles of NiCl2•6H2O

Step 2: Calculate Molarity

PROBLEM: Dissolve 5.00 g of NiCl2 in enough water to make 250 mL of solution. Calculate the Molarity.

Step 1: Calculate moles of NiCl2•6H2O

Step 2: Calculate Molarity

[NiCl2•6 H2O] = 0.0841 M

What mass of oxalic acid, H2C2O4, is

required to make 250. mL of a 0.0500 M

solution?

Dilutions

M1 V1 = M2 V2

Where:M1 = concentration of the first solutionV1 = volume of the first solutionM2 = concentration of the second solutionV2 = volume of the second solution

Examples:

1.Howmanymililitersof a solution of 4M KI are needed to prepare 400 mL of a 0.76 M ?

IB Note
• Square brackets [0.60] means
• 0.60 M or
• 0.60 mol/L or
• 0.60 mol dm-3

This is what IB uses!