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Solutions. IB Chemistry. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances . It is made of a solvent and a solute. SOLUTE – the part of a solution that is being dissolved (usually the lesser amount)

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solutions

Solutions

IB Chemistry

slide2
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances .

It is made of a solvent and a solute.

slide3
SOLUTE – the part of a solution that is being dissolved (usually the lesser amount)
  • SOLVENT – the part of a solution that dissolves the solute (usually the greater amount)
  • Solute + Solvent = Solution
concentration of solution

moles solute

(

M

)

=

Molarity

liters of solution

Concentration of Solution

The amount of solute in a solution is given by its concentration.

M = n/V mol dm-3

concentration
Concentration
  • If something is concentrated it has more moles/grams of solute per amount of solvent.
  • Ex: 12 M HCl
  • If something is dilute it has less moles/grams of solute per amount of solvent

Ex: 0.10 M HCl

problem dissolve 5 00 g of nicl2 in enough water to make 250 ml of solution calculate the molarity
PROBLEM: Dissolve 5.00 g of NiCl2 in enough water to make 250 mL of solution. Calculate the Molarity.

Step 1: Calculate moles of NiCl2•6H2O

Step 2: Calculate Molarity

problem dissolve 5 00 g of nicl2 in enough water to make 250 ml of solution calculate the molarity1
PROBLEM: Dissolve 5.00 g of NiCl2 in enough water to make 250 mL of solution. Calculate the Molarity.

Step 1: Calculate moles of NiCl2•6H2O

Step 2: Calculate Molarity

[NiCl2•6 H2O] = 0.0841 M

slide8

What mass of oxalic acid, H2C2O4, is

required to make 250. mL of a 0.0500 M

solution?

dilutions
Dilutions

M1 V1 = M2 V2

Where:M1 = concentration of the first solutionV1 = volume of the first solutionM2 = concentration of the second solutionV2 = volume of the second solution

Examples:

1.Howmanymililitersof a solution of 4M KI are needed to prepare 400 mL of a 0.76 M ?

ib note
IB Note
  • Square brackets [0.60] means
  • 0.60 M or
  • 0.60 mol/L or
  • 0.60 mol dm-3

This is what IB uses!