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The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge was built by the Japanese government in the 1990s to prop up aggregate demand. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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What you will learn in this chapter: ➤ What fiscal policy is and why it is an important tool in managing economic fluctuations ➤ Which policies constitute an expansionary fiscal policy and which constitute a contractionary fiscal policy

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Presentation Transcript
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What you will learn in this chapter:

➤ What fiscal policy is and why it is an important tool in managing economic fluctuations

➤ Which policies constitute an expansionary fiscal policy and which constitute a contractionary fiscal policy

➤ Why fiscal policy has a multiplier effect and how this effect is influenced by automatic stabilizers

➤ Why governments calculate the cyclically adjusted budget balance

➤ Why a large public debt may be a cause for concern

➤ Why implicit liabilities of the government are also a cause for concern

The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge was built by the Japanese government in the 1990s to prop up aggregate demand.

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Fiscal Policy: The Basics

Taxes, Purchases of Goods and Services,

Government Transfers, and Borrowing

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Fiscal Policy: The Basics

Taxes, Purchases of Goods and Services,

Government Transfers, and Borrowing

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(17-1)

GDP = C + I + G + X - IM

Fiscal Policy: The Basics

Taxes, Purchases of Goods and Services,

Government Transfers, and Borrowing

Social insurance programs are government programs intended to protect families against economic hardship.

The Government Budget and Total Spending

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Fiscal Policy: The Basics

Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy

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Fiscal Policy: The Basics

Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy

Expansionary fiscal policy increases

aggregate demand.

Fiscal policy that increases aggregate demand normally takes one of three forms:

■ An increase in government purchases of goods and services, such as the Japanese government’s decision to launch a massive construction program

■ A cut in taxes, such as the one the United States implemented in 2001

■ An increase in government transfers, such as unemployment benefits

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Fiscal Policy: The Basics

Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy

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Fiscal Policy: The Basics

Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy

Contractionary fiscal policy reduces

aggregate demand.

A Cautionary Note: Lags in Fiscal Policy

Many economists caution against an extremely active stabilization policy, arguing that a government that tries too hard to stabilize the economy—through either fiscal policy or monetary policy—can end up making the economy less stable.

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Fiscal Policy and the Multiplier

Multiplier Effects of an Increase in Government Purchases of Goods and Services

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Fiscal Policy and the Multiplier

Multiplier Effects of Changes in Government Transfers and Taxes

Expansionary or contractionary fiscal policy need not take the form of changes in government purchases of goods and services. Governments can also change transfer payments or taxes.

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Fiscal Policy and the Multiplier

How Taxes Affect the Multiplier

A lump-sum tax does not change when real GDP changes.

A proportional tax increases when real GDP increases and decreases when real GDP decreases.

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Fiscal Policy and the Multiplier

How Taxes Affect the Multiplier

Automatic stabilizers are government spending and taxation rules that cause fiscal policy to be expansionary when the economy contracts and contractionary when the economy expands.

Discretionary fiscal policy is fiscal policy that is the result of deliberate actions by policy makers rather than of rules.

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economics in action

  • How Much Bang for the Buck?
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economics in action

  • How Much Bang for the Buck?
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(17-2)

Budget Balance = T– G –TR

The Budget Balance

The Budget Balance as a Measure of Fiscal Policy

The budget balance is the difference between tax revenue and government spending.

The budget surplus is the difference between tax revenue and government spending when tax revenue exceeds government spending.

The budget deficit is the difference between tax revenue and government spending when government spending exceeds tax revenue.

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The Budget Balance

The Business Cycle and the Cyclically Adjusted Budget Balance

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The Budget Balance

The Business Cycle and the Cyclically Adjusted Budget Balance

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The Budget Balance

The Business Cycle and the Cyclically Adjusted Budget Balance

The cyclically adjusted budget balance is an estimate of what the budget balance would be if real GDP were exactly equal to potential output.

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The Budget Balance

The Business Cycle and the Cyclically Adjusted Budget Balance

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The Budget Balance

Should the Budget Be Balanced?

Most economists don’t think so. They believe that the government should only balance its budget on average—that it should be allowed to run deficits in bad years, offset by surpluses in good years.

Yet policy makers concerned about excessive deficits sometimes feel that rigid rules prohibiting—or at least setting an upper limit on—deficits are necessary.

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Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy

Deficits, Surpluses, and Debt

Fiscal years run from October 1 to September 30 and are named by the calendar year in which they end.

Public debt is government debt held by individuals and institutions outside the government.

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Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy

Deficits, Surpluses, and Debt

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Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy

Problems Posed by Rising Government Debt

Crowding out is the negative effect of budget deficits on private investment.

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Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy

Deficits and Debt in Practice

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Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy

Deficits and Debt in Practice

The debt–GDP ratio is government debt as a percentage of GDP.

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Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy

Deficits and Debt in Practice

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Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy

Implicit Liabilities

Implicit liabilities are spending promises made by governments that are effectively a debt despite the fact that they are not included in the usual debt statistics.

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K E Y T E R M S

Social insurance

Expansionary fiscal policy

Contractionary fiscal policy

Lump-sum tax

Proportional tax

Automatic stabilizers

Discretionary fiscal policy

Budget balance

Budget surplus

Budget deficit

Cyclically adjusted budget balance

Fiscal years

Public debt

Crowding out

Debt–GDP ratio

Implicit liabilities