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Class 2 – 15th June 2011. SLIIT - Practical Projects AGILE in Context AGILE in Practice. to draw comparisons with more traditional methods to discuss why AGILE has developed to describe how AGILE works to discuss the advantages and disadvantages. Objectives. But first, a problem.

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objectives

to draw comparisons with more traditional methods

to discuss why AGILE has developed

to describe how AGILE works

to discuss the advantages and disadvantages

Objectives
and some administration

Afternoon seminar today

All at 3.00pm

All gather in or outside Furnival 9129

Asif and Neil will lead the seminar

And some administration
structured development methods
Structured Development Methods

Analysis and Design

System Development

Development

Design

Testing

Solution

Problems

Implementation

The world changes

Feasibility

Training

Technology changes

Requirements

Maintenance

Only for large systems

Start TIME Finish

project management methodologies
Project Management Methodologies

PRINCE II Project Management

Structure

Authority and Control

Planning

Documentation

Monitoring

SSADM

Analysis

Design

Development

Testing

Implementation

project stages documents
Project Stages - documents

Project Mandate (or Proposal)

Validation

Project Brief

Authorisation

Initiation

The Project Initiation Document

Actualisation

Project reports

Completion

Client Sign-off

Celebration

Contemplation

Conceptualisation

Business Case

project management methodologies1
Project Management Methodologies

PRINCE II Project Management

Structure

Authority and Control

Planning

Documentation

Monitoring

SSADM

Analysis

Design

Development

Testing

Implementation

RUP

Inception

Elaboration

Construction

Transition

Elaboration

Elaboration

Construction

Construction

Transition

Transition

Requirements

Agree - Sprint - Deliver

Agree - Sprint - Deliver

Agree - Sprint - Deliver

AGILE

rapid development methods

Prototyping

  • RAD / JAD
  • Agile tools and techniques
    • Lean
    • SCRUM
    • XP
    • Crystal
Rapid Development Methods
we still need to specify requirements
We still need to Specify Requirements
  • Generate a shared and agreed understanding of what is required and proposed
  • Identify main components
  • Explain the complicated, simplify the complex
  • Emphasise elements and points
  • Convert “soft” requirements to “hard” technical specifications
  • Can be text documents, tables, models or pictures
    • but must be specific
  • Example
example requirement was for mobile computing
example – Requirementwasfor Mobile Computing

What they wanted was this ….

or this ….

or this ….

but size and weight not specified
ButSize and weightnotspecified

So they got this …

agile features

“Agile – quick moving, nimble, active”

Oxford Concise Dictionary

  • Emerged from Business Strategy
  • Agile methods are adaptive rather than predictive
    • Identify requirement
    • Agree and meet priority needs
    • Rework or move on
  • Agile methods are people-oriented rather than process-oriented
    • Self Managed Teams
    • Team members always have to think “why should we do this. Is there a need?”
    • Task and time constrained
    • Problem solving
    • Complete whole task
AGILE - Features
the agile approach

Manifesto for Agile Software Development We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value:

    • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
    • Working software over comprehensive documentation
    • Customer collaboration over contract negotiationResponding to change over following a plan
      • Manifestfor Agile http://agilemanifesto.org/
  • "In general, agile projects follow four main principle:
    • modularity
    • an iterative approach
    • responsiveness to change
    • putting users at the core." System Error, Institute for Government
The AGILE approach
agile lifecycle

Requirements

    • Model what is needed
    • Agree priority
  • Envisioning
    • Team
    • Architecture
    • Plan
      • Deliverables
      • Quality
  • Construction - iterations
    • Just meet requirements
    • Review against needs (may have changed)
    • Meet new requirements or move on.
AGILE Lifecycle
agile development
Agile Development

Speculate

Model, create

Release plan

Product Launch

Implementation

& deployment

Envision

Scope and vision

Explore

Iterative delivery

Close

Review

Iterations

for each release

Preparation

& plan

Story creation

Development

Produce, test

and deliver.

Quality assure and

Client acceptance

Integration

Review product

backlog

Continuous Activity – Architecture design, integration, project management

agile lifecycle 3

Requirements

    • Model what is needed
    • Agree priority
  • Envisioning
    • Team
    • Architecture
    • Plan
      • Deliverables
      • Quality
  • Construction - iterations
    • Just meet requirements
    • Review against needs (may have changed)
    • Meet new requirements or move on.
AGILE Lifecycle 3
agile rules 1

Active Stakeholder Participation

Architecture Envisioning

Document Late

Executable Specifications

Iteration Modelling

Just Barely Good Enough (JBGE) artefacts

Model a bit Ahead

Model Storming

Multiple Models

Prioritized Requirements

Requirements Envisioning

Single Source Information

Test-Driven Design (TDD).

Agile Rules 1
agile rules 2

Documentation

    • Use Models and tables
    • Sign-up, Sign-off
    • Minimum possible
  • Rules
    • “there are no rules”
    • “there are strict rules”
    • Anything can be an artefact (deliverable)
    • Only do what is agreed
    • No bugs, compromises, omissions, or extras
    • Teams solve problems - imagination
AGILE Rules 2
comparison prince ii agile
PRINCE II

Agile

Adaptive rather than predictive

Identify requirement

Meet priority needs

Rework or move on

People not process oriented

Self Managed Teams

Team members always have to think “why should we do this. Is there a need?”

Task and time constrained

Problem solving

Complete whole task

  • Product based
    • Activity based planning
    • Focus on end result
  • Business led
    • Authority from business
    • Business objectives embedded
  • Defined
    • Roles and responsibilities
  • Organised
    • Management structure
    • Procedures
    • Tools
  • Scaleable
    • Programmes and Projects
Comparison PRINCE II - Agile
agile some observations and arguments

Some industry analysts claim that:

    • AGILE is not a complete approach - much of the Business Requirements analysis is done before Agile starts;
    • Developers have always taken an Agile approach in reality;
    • Without an overall strategic framework Iterations could go on for ever and the project never finish;
    • Agile encourages mediocrity, not excellence.
  • Others say that AGILE:
    • Encourages innovation and problem solving;
    • Takes a realistic view of what is possible;
    • Is more likely to result in successful projects.
AGILE – Some Observations and Arguments
agile development1
Agile Development

Speculate

Model, create

Release plan

Product Launch

Implementation

& deployment

Envision

Scope and vision

Explore

Iterative delivery

Close

Review

Iterations

for each release

Preparation

& plan

Story creation

Development

Produce, test

and deliver.

Quality assure and

Client acceptance

Integration

Review product

backlog

Continuous Activity – Architecture design, integration, project management

an example assignment 1

Requirements - Traditional

    • Design and create a team website which is available for tutor viewing by the deadline time and day.
    • Website Contents
      • A team profile giving information such as team name, team members, team identity. Based upon the 60 second presentation.
      • A team repository for files collected during the course.
      • A private area for each team member
    • MUST use SHU web space
  • Requirements - AGILE
    • As Stories
      • I need a site on the SHU system to show me what each team is like.
      • I need a private space for each students in their team area where they can build their AGILE Learning Diary for Assignment 3.
An example - Assignment 1
sources
Sources
  • Information Technology Project Management, Marchewka R, Wiley 2010
  • Meredith and Mantel, Wiley 2009
  • Agile Project Management2nd Ed, Highsmith J, Pearson 2010
  • Office of Government Computing http://www.best-management-practice.com/Project-Management-PRINCE2/
  • System Error, Fixing the Flaws in government IT, Institute for Government, March 2011 http://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/publications/23/
  • British Computer Society BCS http://www.bcs.org/server.php?show=ConWebDoc.13170
  • University of Edinburgh http://www.projects.ed.ac.uk/about/
mobilearn the development process

WP7-9-10

Understand the constraints within which we must work

Understand what the learner wants to achieve

WP4

WP5

WP2

Identify sources for content, off the shelf, adapt, or develop

Agree with partner WPs content needs

Agree technical spec and pedagogical design

Understand what we want the technology to achieve

Gather feedback from user trials and evaluations

Gather / develop components and build LOs

WP2

WP6-5-8

WP11

Test and validate the learning experience

Implement and test on prototypes and final system

Learn from and document the process

WP6 WP7

WP9 WP10

WP2

WP4

Mobilearn - The Development Process
slide34

M1.4 Decide which exhibits to visit

M1.6 Document thoughts and knowledge gained

Museum Scenario M1 – Learning Activity Model

M1.1 Decide which museum to visit

M1.2 Review subject material for museum visit

M1.3 Gather museum on-site tour information

M1.5 Draw comparisons between prior knowledge and live experience

M1.7 Seek additional material prompted by the live experience

pathfinders prison e learning

Agree learning plan with prisoner

Import new prisoner with learning record

Manage prisoner access to learning provision

Document learning record

Continuously gather learning performance data for each prisoner

Produce LSC standard learning records and MI reports

Build and maintain education service MI records

Admin PCs not available for learning purposes (£11k per PC to SEMA)

Input data to transferable personal learning record

Export prisoner with usable personal learning record

To LSC, HQ

Pathfinders – Prison e-learning
learndirect learning centre process map
learndirect - Learning Centre Process Map

Reception

Enrolment

Manage Learning

Support learning

  • Critical Success Factors
  • repeat business
  • immediate support response
  • callers on courses

Manage Information

learndirect new learning environment

Conceptual Model v1.3 14/07/05

High-level

1. Attract learner to learndirectlearndirect

A system for delivering quality learning activities by providing access to the advice, expertise, funds and ICT necessary for learners to undertake learndirect courses within the constraints of the funding rules and delivery targets (KPIs).

5. Define criteria for Efficacy (E1) and

Efficiency (E2)

6. Monitor activities 1 - 4

9. Monitor activities 1 - 712

7. Take control action

10. Take control action

2. Determine learner needs

8. Define criteria for Effectiveness (E3)

3. Agree contract between learner and learndirectlearndirect

4. Provision of learning activity

Learndirect – New Learning Environment
cybrarian the learning process

Awareness

Logs into the Cybrarian internet helper

Send e-mails to relative and Dundee museum

Decides to find out how to use the internet

Try again

Gets information about the internet and e-mail

Impressed – decides to give it a go

HELP! – lost and confused. Ask Cybrarian for help

Relative is interested in Romans – what can I find in Dundee

Practice – look up the weather for relative’s visit BBC

Experiment

Adventurous

Check out the cinemas

Decides to look into getting some exercise

Search for information about local courses

Revisit that weather site – need indoor entertainment

Chooses a course and sends e-mail booking online

Assesses information for suitability, location, cost etc.

Decides to use new found skills to plan for relative’s visit

Checks local transport for bus routes and times

Purpose

Cybrarian – the learning process